Monaco Geography

Monaco Geography and Population

OFFICIAL NAME: Principality of Monaco


POPULATION: 37,550 (2016)

AREA: 2 km²

OFFICIAL LANGUAGE (S): French, Ligurian (Italian dialect), Monegasque (Provencal dialect), English, other

RELIGION: Catholics 90%, others 10%

COIN: Euro



POPULATION COMPOSITION: French 9286 residents, Monegasques 8378 residents, Italians 2795 residents, British 2795 residents, Swiss 1187 residents, Danes 248 residents, other nationalities (2016)

GDP PER residents: 69,000 euros (2015)

LIFE EXPECTANCY: men 82.1 years, women 88.2 years (2015)


Monaco, principality on the French Mediterranean coast 10 km east of Nice. The country with the modest extent of approximately 3 km along the coast and a few hundred meters in width are sought by wealthy people as tourist destinations and tax havens. In practice, the area is an integral part of France.

National flag

The flag of Monaco is a trade flag, the trunk flag, which is also used as a national flag. The flag was officially introduced in 1881. The colors come from the coat of arms of the Grimaldis family, which is known from the 1300’s. The state flag is white with the Grimaldieres coat of arms in the middle.


The entire area of ​​the country is fully developed and is part of the almost unbroken buildings along the Côte d’Azur. The railway is laid in a tunnel under the land. Seaworthy expansions are possible, and in 2002, yacht capacity doubled with a large floating pier. On a rocky peninsula lies the capital Monaco with the princely castle and a famous oceanographic museum.

In the Monte Carlo district is the famous casino that contributes to the country’s income. Residents do not usually pay taxes. This and a zealously guarded banking secret have attracted wealthy newcomers, and a large part of the buildings are made up of luxury homes.

Business is dominated by tourism, which is animated by numerous congresses as well as sporting and cultural events. Particularly well known is the annual car race through Europe, the Monte Carlo Rally, as well as the Formula 1 race Monaco Grand Prix through the city streets. A cosmetics and pharmaceutical industry has emerged, and the economy is thus less dependent on the casino than before.


Monaco’s constitution, which dates from 1911, was modified in 1917 and newly written in 1962. Monaco is a hereditary principality that has been under French protection since 1861. The legislative power lies with the prince and a national council of 24 members, who are elected for five years by general election; the prince has the executive power along with a government headed by a prime minister.


The official language is French, which is the mother tongue of the majority of the population. The Occitan dialect Monegasque and the Italian Ligurian are each spoken by approximately 15%.


The Roman Catholic Church is a state church, and approximately 90% of the population belongs to this. In addition, there are especially Anglicans and Reformed.

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The education system is very similar to the French, see France (education), but also includes subjects such as the history of the principality and the Monegasque language. The public school system is compulsory for 6-16-year-olds and includes a five-year primary school for 6-11-year-olds. The superstructure is seven-year with a four-year and a three-year level. At the last level, students are divided into a general and a technical line.

In addition to the public education system, there is an extensive private school system, which occupies approximately one third of each vintage.

Higher education in nursing, trade, industry, hotel and banking takes place in Monaco, while university education takes place mainly at French universities.


Monaco was founded by the Phoenicians and came in 500-tfKr. under Massalia (Marseille). In the Roman Empire, Monaco enjoyed great prosperity. I 600-t. the area became part of the Lombard kingdom, and later it became part of the kingdom of Arles. When the Saracens attacked the Ligurian coast, Monaco came under Muslim rule.

In the late 900-t. the Genoese family Grimaldi came into possession of the area, and in 1297 they gained a real dominion as princes of Monaco. During the 1500-t. the principality was mainly under Spanish control and in the 1600’s. under French domination. After the Congress of Vienna in 1815, Monaco fell to the Kingdom of Sardinia. In 1861 it gained its present independent principality status under French protection. Tax exemption was introduced in 1869.

Prince Rainier III died in 2005 after 56 years in power and was succeeded by his son, Prince Albert II.

Monaco Geography