In the region corresponding to the current Montenegro in the 11th century. one of the first Serbian state formations developed. When the Turks conquered Serbia, the province managed to maintain its independence under the leadership of the vladika, the prince-bishop of Cettigne. In the 18th century. the government assumed the forms of a theocratic monarchy, until 1851, when Vladika Danilo II, succeeding his uncle Peter II, stripped himself of his episcopal dignity while retaining that of prince (gospodar). In 1878 the Congress of Berlin recognized the independence of Montenegro from the Ottoman Empire. In 1910 Prince Nicola, who had ensured his country a certain international prominence thanks to the marriages of his daughters (in 1896 Princess Elena married Vittorio Emanuele of Savoy, future king of Italy), took the title of king. Support for Austria during the First World War led to the end of the dynasty: in December 1918, Montenegro became part of the Kingdom of the Serbs, Croats and Slovenes (from 1929 Yugoslavia). In the aftermath of the Second World War, which saw an ephemeral Montenegrin state vassal of the Axis powers, Montenegro became one of the six republics of the new Yugoslavia.
After the outbreak of the 1991 Yugoslav crisis, Montenegro was the only one among the federated republics that remained united with Serbia, with which it gave birth in April 1992 to the Federal Republic of Yugoslavia. Relations between the two countries began to crack in 1997, when a faction of the Party of Yugoslav Socialists, led by Montenegro Djukanović, began to ask, in the face of the centralized will of the federal president and Serbian leader S. Milošević, for full equivalence in scope of the federation of legislative powers between the two republics, provided for by the Constitution. The clash between President Montenegro Bulatović, sided in favor of Milošević, and Djukanović split the party into two formations, which stood divided in the presidential elections in November 1997. Having become president, Djukanović promoted the battle for independence. In 2002 Serbia and Montenegro signed an agreement that sanctioned the transformation of the federation into a union between the two republics, to be tested for three years. Diverging assessments on this step led to a government crisis and to the elections of October 2002, won by the separatist parties. Djukanović left the presidency and headed the government. At the beginning of 2003 Serbs and Montenegrins approved a new confederal structure of the state, which allowed a wide autonomy and established a link only for foreign and defense policy, but this did not stop the secessionist tendencies. At the beginning of 2005, Montenegro proposed to Serbia to end the union between the two republics; the Serbian refusal did not stop Montenegrin intentions: in the 2006 referendum the majority of the voters pronounced themselves in favor of independence, officially proclaimed in June. In autumn the parliamentary elections saw the victory of the independence coalition. Between the end of 2006 and the first months of 2007, Montenegro obtained admission to the International Monetary Fund and to the Partnership for peace of NATO.
According to localcollegeexplorer, the first negotiations for association with the EU were also undertaken, leading to the signing of the Stabilization and Association Agreement in October 2007. Djukanović’s Social Democratic Party confirmed its leadership both in the 2008 presidential elections, which conferred a second mandate on F. Vujanović, and in the 2009 legislative elections. After Djukanović’s resignation from the post of prime minister in 2010, who took over I. Lukšić, in the parliamentary elections held in October 2012 the coalition For a European Montenegro of Đukanović established itself by a large margin over the opposition party of Montenegro Lekić, although not having obtained an absolute majority it had to resort to alliances with the parties minors. In December, the new Parliament voted confidence in the government team presented by Djukanović, reconfirmed as prime minister, while in the presidential elections held in April 2013, Vujanović obtained a third term, receiving 51.2% of the votes. However, 2013 was a difficult year for the prime minister due to some political scandals involving important party leaders; nevertheless, the political group achieved an important electoral success in local consultations in May 2014, achieving an absolute majority in almost all the Montenegrin municipalities, a result that reinforced the political stability of the premier, as also attested by the results of the political elections held in October 2016, which confirmed its leadership. Refused the post of prime minister and designated as his successor D. Marković, deputy prime minister and his trusted man, in April 2018 Djukanović was elected president of the country in the first round with 54% of the votes. The Democratic Party of Socialists of the politician narrowly won the parliamentary elections held in August 2020, receiving 35.4% of the votes (30 seats) but losing the absolute majority, while it established itself as the second political force in the country the coalition For the future of Montenegro which won 32.8% of the votes, followed by the pro-European centrist coalition Black on White (5.5%).
In June 2017, Montenegro became the 29th state of NATO.