It is a country in Southeastern Europe located on the Balkan Peninsula, on the shores of the Adriatic Sea. It is bordered to the north by Bosnia-Herzegovina and Serbia, to the east by Serbia, Kosovo and Albania, to the south by the Adriatic Sea and to the west by Bosnia-Herzegovina and Croatia. Not a recognized country by the entire international community, because it proclaimed its independence from Serbia unilaterally on June 3 of the 2006. Podgorica is the capital city of Montenegro according to itypejob.
The official language Montenegrin, although all the residents speak Serbo-Croatian and Albanian and Bosnian are also recognized as official; the form of government is a parliamentary republic, the currency is the euro, since it is one of the countries in which it circulates but is not integrated into the monetary system; and the time zone is CET (UTC + 1).
Present-day Montenegro has belonged to successive empires and states for two millennia, from the Roman Empire in the second century BC, to the confederation of Serbia and Montenegro, created in 2003 between the two remaining republics of what was the old one. Yugoslavia.
The territory was integrated into the province of Dalmatia after its conquest by Rome in the 2nd century BC. After the division of the Empire and the subsequent Germanic invasion of the western part, the region was incorporated by Justinian into the Byzantine Empire.
During the early medieval centuries, the region known as Dioclea was gradually populated by Slavic communities. After belonging to different states (Serbia, Bulgaria, Venice and again Byzantium), in the 11th century the emancipation attempts began with the creation of the so-called kingdom of Zeta, under the regency of Esteban Vojislav (1031 – 1050), Miguel (1051 – 1082) and Bodin (1092 – 1101).
The later period was characterized by instability, with a succession of ecclesiastical governments, revolts by the crown princes against the legitimate rulers, foreign wars against the Turks and Venetians, and continuous massacres against the Montenegrin population.
From 1516, Montenegro was ruled by a theocracy supervised by the Petrovic family, in turn feudatory of the Austrian Empire. At the end of the 18th century the theocracy went into decline and it was then, under the reign of Peter I (1782 – 1830), that the formation of the modern Montenegrin state began, with the promulgation of a Constitution in 1798. Pedro II (1830 – 1851) limited the power of the local tribes and organized a modern guard that frequently fought against the Turks during the rest of the 19th and part of the 20th century.
Danilo I (1851 – 1860) continued to modernize the country, but strong opposition from the tribes culminated in his own assassination. He was succeeded by the last and longest reign in the history of Montenegro, that of Nicholas I (1860 – 1918), who helped to consolidate the country’s independence in the treaties of San Stefano and Berlin and maintained excellent relations with Serbia and Russia in detriment to the Ottoman Empire.
Before World War I, Montenegro allied with Greece, Bulgaria, and Serbia against Turkey to liberate the rest of the Balkans that was still under Ottoman rule. In the middle of the war, Serbia and Montenegro allied against the Austro-Hungarian Empire, for which they were invaded. In 1918, the monarchy was finally abolished and Montenegro was united with Serbia that would culminate with the creation of Yugoslavia, although with strong autonomist tendencies.
In World War II, the country was invaded by Fascist Italy and later by Nazi Germany. The 6 of January of 1945, Montenegro was liberated by Communist partisans and became part of Yugoslavia as a socialist federal republic. It was then that the capital moved from Cetinje to Podgorica, which for a time was known as Titograd in homage to President Josip Broz ‘ Tito ‘.
After the ” Balkan War ” (1991 – 1996), Montenegro and Serbia were united in the new confederation of Yugoslavia, and both suffered equally from the sanctions established by the UN for the atrocities of the war in Bosnia and Herzegovina. Under these circumstances, secessionist impetus began to grow, largely fueled by the conflicts in the rest of the former Yugoslavia.
In February of 2003, Montenegro became a member of the federation with Serbia Serbia and Montenegro, with strong autonomy for both sides in economic, military and international issues.
However, separatist groups promote segregation and 3 of June of 2006 the Parliament of Montenegro unilaterally proclaimed independence of this republic, formally confirming the results of the referendum on May 21 of that year. It is recognized by the UN on June 28.
Montenegro is a parliamentary republic with a multi-party democratic system, although its stability depends on the mission that the UN has established in the country. The head of state is the president, who has a four-year term and is elected by direct vote. Among its functions are to promulgate laws, call elections and plebiscites and propose the prime minister.
Executive power rests with the prime minister and his government. Its functions include foreign relations, proposing laws and the Administration. He must have the confidence of parliament, which is the institution that elects him on the proposal of the president. Legislative power rests with the Parliament of Montenegro, which is unicameral. It is made up of 77 members, with a term of four years, elected in direct elections. The Judicial power rests with independent judges and courts, whose highest instance is the Supreme Court.
Administratively, Montenegro is divided into 21 municipalities:
- Bijelo Polje
- Herceg Novi
Montenegro’s economy is still closely related to that of Serbia, and to the cycles of the former Yugoslavia. It is a moderately industrialized region, although with an obsolete production system. Agriculture hardly produces for the market, and in any case it is for a local market. Much of it is self-reliance. The agricultural regions par excellence are the plains of the interior of the country, and the plains of the rivers. Its main crops are corn, oats, potatoes, barley, wheat, etc. Livestock is concentrated in the many mountains, although it also has a strong family and subsistence character. It stands out in the generation of electrical energy, mining: bauxite, chromium, manganese, lead, zinc, copper, and in forest resources and textiles. Communications are slow and difficult. The war destroyed many of the infrastructure and the crisis is preventing reconstruction.
It was a tourist region in Yugoslavia times, due to its lakes and coastline, but nowadays it is an unappetizing destination, so it has not taken off as a tourist destination.
The UN sanctions on Serbia and Montenegro and the administration of the UN Mission have caused a deep crisis from which it is having a hard time exiting. It is a poor country within Europe, with a human development index of 0.822, high for the world, low for Europe. Much of the Montenegrin population is below the poverty line. Due to its position in the Adriatic Sea, close to Italy and the few controls on the border with Serbia, it became a smuggling center in which the underground economy solves many of the country’s problems. Due to its economic weakness the euro it is the currency of use in the country. Its economy is in the process of reconstruction and there are hardly any reliable data, due to the turbulent historical and political events that the country has suffered.
Montenegro has about 690,000 residents, which gives a population density of about 50 h / km². It is a modern population that ended the demographic transition during the communist period. Its demographic cycles correspond to those of Yugoslavia, and the population has suffered the wars that hit the area in the late 20th and early 21st centuries. Its population is composed mainly of Montenegrins and Serbs, but there are a minority from all the former Yugoslav republics. Montenegro has a young population by the norm in Europe. 16% of the population is under 15 years old, 70% between 15 and 65 years old, and 14% is over 65 years old. The population is decreasing at a rate of -0.8% per year, due to a negative migratory balance and a low birth rate of 11 ‰, which gives a fertility rate of 1.4 children per woman. The mortality rate is low, about 8, and the infant mortality rate is also low, as in neighboring Serbia it is about 6 ‰. Life expectancy at birth is about 74 years.
The population is distributed more or less evenly throughout the country, although there is a predominance of the urban population. The main Montenegrin cities are:
- Podgorica, 145,192 h, Podgorica Municipality
- Niksic, 58,712 h, Niksic Township
- Pljevlja, 9,354 p.m., Pljevlja municipality
- Bijelo Polje, 15,357 h, municipality of Bijelo Polje
- Bar, 15,112 h, Bar municipality
Education in Montenegro is governed by the Montenegrin Ministry of Education and Science. Education in preschools and primary schools. Children enroll in elementary schools at the age of 6; up to 9 years. Students can continue their secondary education, which lasts four years (three years for trade schools) and ends with graduation.
Higher education ends with a first degree depending on the career after 3 to 6 years. There is a public university (The University of Montenegro and two private ones (Mediterranean University and UDG).
Due to its geographical situation, there are many cultures that have been found in Montenegro, cultures and religions such as Serbian, Orthodox, Slavic, as well as other arrivals from central Europe or through its coastline with the Adriatic Sea, cultures that have coexisted for centuries.
The Old Cathar, now Kotor, is an impressive city, distinguished as a World Heritage Site for its beauty. On the coast for example, you can see numerous monuments of Catholic origin, while the interior is a preserve of monuments of the Byzantine current.
As a traditional dance in Montenegro, gold can be highlighted, literature is also part of the highlights of Montenegrin culture.
Montenegrin is the official language, although all the residents speak Serbo-Croatian and Albanian and Bosnian are also recognized as official.
Most of the country, about 80%, is Orthodox. The remaining 20% profess Islam, while the Catholic religion is a minority religion in Montenegro. Almost all of the Catholic population of Montenegro is concentrated in the coastal area.