With livestock farming, it constitutes the main resource of Morocco and the basis of its economic future. The most fertile regions are the Gharb, the Sebou valley, the Chaouïa, Doukkala; a good economic future, from an agricultural point of view, promises the regions of Meknès and Fez. An extensive remediation program aims to improve the yield of the cultivated areas, to increase their extension and to introduce new crops. According to agricultural statistics, on 11,750,000 hectares the cultivated lands cover 3,750,000 hectares; uncultivated lands 1,200,000 hectares; vegetable gardens, gardens, vineyards and olive groves 110,000 hectares; the land of path 4,450,000 hectares, the forests 2 million hectares. From 1926 to 1931 the surface of cultivated land has undergone an increase of over one million hectares; 723. 000 hectares belong to the Europeans (677,000 to the French). The European rural population is around 12,000 residents; the private colonization counts 1351 colonists, who own 491.000 hectares, the official one counts 1334 on 232.000 hectares.
The cultivation of cereals holds the first place, covering more than 3 million ha.; it provides the natives with food for themselves and their livestock and provides the novice settlers with immediate income.
Durum wheat occupies 950,000 hectares; soft wheat, which before the protectorate was unknown to Morocco, occupies 267,000 hectares. The natives prefer the cultivation of durum wheat, but their soft wheat crops are expanding from year to year; Europeans cultivate almost exclusively the soft one, to which they reserve the best lands, generally sowing it in spring. From 5 to 6 million quintals of durum wheat are produced, from 1 to 2 million quintals of soft wheat. The yield is about 6 quintals on average for the indigenous people; it is higher and can reach 20 quintals per hectare in European crops. Barley is the most cultivated cereal: its cultivation occupies 1,311,000 hectares with a production of 9 to 10 million quintals; the yield ranges from 6 to 9 quintals and, under favorable conditions, it can reach 16 and 18 quintals. Oats cover 46,000 hectares and yield 300,000 quintals; its cultivation, introduced after the advent of the protectorate, is rapidly expanding. Corn covers 242,000 hectares with a production from 1 ½ to 2 million quintals; the yields are from 3 to 4 quintals in dry crops and from 5 to 7 quintals in irrigated crops. Sorghum (8000 hectares) and millet (12,000 hectares) are sown in spring, so that in the years of late rain the natives make up for a little of the lesser sowing of wheat in autumn. Among other food crops, broad beans occupy 56,000 hectares, chickpeas 39,000 hectares, lentils 7,000 hectares.
In Morocco, as in all Mediterranean countries, fruit growing is of great importance.
The olive tree can be grown throughout the Moroccan territory, except in regions of great altitude; over 5 million olive trees have been registered in the area subject to France, of which 1,900,000 in the regions of Fez and Ouezzane, 400,000 in that of Meknès, 242,000 in that of Taza, 1,400,000 in that of Morocco, 672,000 in that of Agadir. The regions most favorable to the olive grove are those at the edge of the coastal massifs, in the north, the northern and southern borders of the High Atlas, in the south; the most important center is that of the Mesfioua in the region of Morocco; there are also numerous plantations in the Spanish area. It can be calculated that the yield of olive cultivation in Morocco rises to one million quintals of olives, a yield that can be considerably increased. For Morocco political system, please check cancermatters.net.
The fig (there are 4 million plants) is the predominant tree of Moroccan orchards, together with the almond tree (1,600,000 plants), widespread in the regions of Morocco and Agadir. There are also oranges and lemons (240,000 trees); the very common apricot, peach, pear, plum, and, in cool regions, cherry and apple; there are beautiful walnut trees in the valleys of the High Atlas. The date palm is grown in all oases, especially in the Dra and Tafilelt, however, the production of dates is less than needed and Morocco imports them annually.
The cultivation of vines dates back to ancient times in Morocco and the indigenous vineyard occupies about 6000 hectares; but the European vineyard has recently been created; the plantations have expanded rapidly and already cover 13,000 hectares; however, it would be harmful to develop them again.
Vegetables are grown on an area of 15,000 hectares, of which 13,000 are European crops; where sufficient irrigation is possible, all vegetables are successful, especially in the coastal area: potatoes, sweet potatoes, beans, cabbage, tomatoes, aubergines, courgettes; Morocco already draws considerable income from the export of the first fruits.
Finally, we can mention some old Moroccan specialties such as the phalaride, which is used for the finishing of the fabrics, the hay grass, the cumin, the saffron, the coriander, the henna; crops which are not susceptible to great extension. Among the new crops, the beet crop gave satisfactory results; the cultivation of cotton is practiced a little in the region of Morocco and in eastern Morocco, around Berkane; that of hemp especially in the SE. of Morocco, among the Mesfioua tribes; flax has been cultivated for a long time for the seed and covers an area of 18,000 ha.; the fiber variety has recently been introduced.