Niger’s dependence on foreign and external financing remains high.
Niger, like many other African states, is trying to implement the reforms and plans of its economic and social plan (PDES). Economic growth amounted to 5.2% in 2017, with the majority being accounted for by crude oil and processing in the oil refinery in Zinder. The development of the various economic sectors, in particular industry, has been driving the Niger in recent times, although more emphasis is now being placed on the development of agriculture. With the help of various partners, such as Turkey, the expansion of the infrastructure is being improved, and the World Bank is helping to expand jobs in rural areas. The West African Development Bank provides funds for investments in the area, transport, energy and agriculture. The International Monetary Fund supports the further development of reforms in Niger within the framework of the economic and social plan as a pillar of the “Renewal of the Niger” (Le Niger Renaissant). The conference on the “Renaissance” or “ Modernization of the Economy of Niger ” took place on December 13th and 14th, 2017 in Paris; the plan covers the period 2017 to 2021. Niger is intensively promoting investments as part of its renaissance project.
According to militarynous, in 2001 Niger was accepted into the HIPC (heavily indebted poor countries) debt initiative to reduce the debt of the heavily indebted developing countries. The reserves created by the repayment of debts were invested in a special program of the president (which was started under Mamadou Tandja) to improve the education, health and rural water supply (1000 objects each). At the G8 meeting of the seven leading finance ministers of Russia and Russia in 2005, finance ministers agreed to cancel 18 countries, including Niger, on the debts of the World Bank, the International Monetary Fund and the African Development Bank totaling $ 40 billion. The debt relief was generally welcomed, but political scientists warned against being too quick to be satisfied with this step out of the “poverty trap” and neglecting the importance of political “good governance”.
Millennium Development Goals
Niger has been in last or penultimate place in the Human Development Report (HDR) for years. The country is dependent on external aid. In September 2000 189 countries, including Niger, signed the Millennium Development Goals (MDG), which they wanted to implement by 2015. The MDGs have been replaced by the SDGs (Sustainable Development Goals) (see below).
Even though the ambitious goals of the MDGs could not be achieved as a whole, partial successes have been recorded – also in Niger. The WHO will continue to provide intensive support to improve the health situation of the Nigerien population.
A brief summary of the MDGs is summarized below:
MDG 1: Halve the proportion of the world’s population suffering from extreme poverty and hunger. The percentage of absolutely poor people has decreased from an estimated 45.1% in 1992 to 31.5% in 2015. However, as the population increases, the absolute number of poorest people will not have improved significantly.
MDG 2: enable all children to attend primary school: primary school enrollment rose from 18% in 1992 to 63.4% in 2015, but only 75% of pupils complete primary school. School entry is not yet possible for all children.
MDG 3: Promote gender equality and strengthen women’s rights: in 2015 the ratio of boys to girls was 100: 82 in primary school, 100: 67 in secondary school, and the proportion of women in secondary school fell to less than 1 / 3. Positive exceptions are examples for imitation.
MDG 4: Reduce child mortality: In 1990 Niger had the highest child mortality rate in the world; in 1992 318 out of 1,000 babies died; in 1998 the rate had already fallen to 274; In 2017, only 81.1 out of 1,000 babies died. The goal is a child mortality rate of 6%. This good result was achieved in a relatively short time, as basic medical care for children and pregnant women is now free in Niger. As a result, the use of the health service increased massively. In addition, vaccination and insect protection campaigns were carried out successfully. The targeted education in the nutrition sector did the rest.
MDG 5: Improve maternal health: the maternal mortality rate could also be reduced and the number of births assisted by qualified personnel increased from 14.9% in 1992 to 40% in 2015.
MDG 6: Fight HIV / AIDS, malaria and other communicable diseases: the prevalence rate of AIDS has fallen from 0.7 to 0.3.
MDG 7: Improve the protection of the environment: the Nigerien state continues to receive intensive support through a variety of bilateral and multilateral projects at various levels.
MDG 8: build a global development partnership
SD – Sustainable Development Goals (ODD – Objectifs de developpement durable / Sustainable Development Goals)
With the Sustainable Development Goals for a sustainable world, the ‘replaced’ MDGs will be expanded to include legal issues such as gender equality and reducing inequality, but also in the areas of nature, the environment, water, climate, etc. and more.
The bilateral and multilateral partners of the Niger will support it in the implementation of the goals, eg the UNDP; The World Bank supports Niger as part of the PDES program 2017-2021 for social and economic development, which has components of the ODDs.
In the context of the ODDs, the Renaissance program could also be seen in part.
Private business initiatives in Niger
PPP – PrivatePublicPartnership: a concern of development cooperation globally in order to strengthen the private sectors. Smaller companies in the Sahel zone tend to act in the “background”; larger companies can often present themselves more effectively to the outside world. The future will show whether they will actually do the work that is more effective and sustainable for the country and its people and generate jobs to the extent that they promise.