National coat of arms
On December 1, 1962, the national coat of arms was adopted by decree. The state seal is placed in the middle of the white coat of arms. On the shield there are four symbols in gold: in the middle a sun (state seal), left vertically a spear with two crossed Tuareg swords, right three crossed millet cobs and below a head of cattle in frontal view.
The coat of arms is on 4 inclined flags in the national colors orange, white and green. Below is the state name in French: ” REPUBLIQUE DU NIGER “.
The spear symbolizes the Sahel and savanna residents. The sword stands for the Sahara residents. The weapons are also supposed to remind of the empires of the past. The three millet cobs indicate agriculture. The cattle head stands for the important animal husbandry.
According to computergees, Niger’s slogans are: “Fraternity, Work, Progress”.
The text of the national anthem ” La Nigerienne ” (with German translation) is by Maurice Albert Thiriet, the music by Robert Jacquet (1896-1976) and Nicolas Abel François Frionnet (1911-?).
Auprès du grand Niger puissant
Qui rend la nature plus belle,
Soyons fiers et reconnaissants
De notre liberté nouvelle!
Evitons les vaines querelles
Afin d’épargner notre sang,
Et que les glorieux accents
De notre race soit sans tutelle!
S’élève dans un même élan
Jusqu’à ce ciel éblouissant,
Où veille son âme éternelle
Qui fera le pays plus grand!
Debout! Niger! Debout!
Que notre oeuvre féconde
Rajeunisse le coeur de ce vieux continent!
Et que ce chant s’entende
Aux quatre coins du monde
Comme le cri d’un peuple équitable et vaillant!
Debout! Niger! Debout!
Sur le sol et sur l’onde,
Au son des tam-tams
Dans leur rythme grandissant,
Restons unis toujours,
Et que chacun réponde
A ce noble avenir
Qui nous dit: – En avant!
Form of government, constitution and separation of powers
Niger is a semi-presidential republic. The president is head of state; the prime minister head of government. The members of the National Assembly are elected for a five-year term, as is the president. The Prime Minister is appointed by the President. The judiciary is formally independent from the other two state powers. In the course of democratization, a number of parties have emerged in Niger that are represented in the national assembly (171 members, 8 of which are minority representatives). There is a 5% hurdle for parties in elections to the National Assembly; the legislative period is 5 years.
The ‘ Chefferie Nahrungsmittel ‘ is one of the advisory institutions of Nigerien politics at all administrative levels, but without direct political participation, but still with considerable influence.
State and religion are separate in Niger; The Nigerien population is clearly against the introduction of the Sharia law, even if some religious groups demand it again and again.
Formal state structure and territorial administration
Formally, the decentralization was implemented with the 2004 elections. The territory of Niger is divided with the introduction of decentralization in eight regions (formerly departments), by governors are managed: Agadez, Diffa, Dosso, Maradi, Tahoua, Tillaberi, Zinder and the capital Niamey. The regions are divided into 35 départements (formerly arrondissements) and these include the 265 municipalities(213 rural, 52 urban). A region with the ‘conseil regional’ is headed by the governor and the department is headed by the prefect with the ‘conseil de cercle’. The mayor is the executive body of the municipal council ‘conseil municipal’ (in the country) or ‘conseil de secteur’ (in the city). The municipal council is made up of elected representatives from civil society. The representatives of the ‘ Chefferie traditional ‘ also have an advisory role but no voting rights. This takes into account the great importance that the traditional representatives of the people still have in the villages, but also beyond the region.
After the decentralization process only slowly gained momentum due to the lack of information at the population level, decentralization is now well installed in the municipalities as well. Initially, the administrations of the new municipalities and the mayors (offices) were overwhelmed with the new tasks and very skeptical because they had been little prepared and, above all, not long-term. The administration is faced with new tasks when it comes to the responsibilities for various departments. There are now some information brochures been published. The municipalities are financed through taxes such as poll tax (700 FCFA in the country, 1500 FCFA in the city), market tax, taxi tax, slaughter tax, etc. The decentralization and municipal development is now well installed on all population and administrative levels – not least due to sustainable support from bilateral partners such as GIZ or KfW from the German side, but also from other European partners. Multilateral partners are also involved in the decentralization process, such as the European Union and UN organizations such as UNDP.