Nigeria Geography and Population

Nigeria – Geography

Nigeria – geography, Like most of West Africa, Nigeria lies on a low-lying bedrock of Precambrian granite, and up to 190 million. years ago, before the formation of the Atlantic, Nigeria hung with northern Brazil. The terrain is essentially smooth; in the central part there is a high plateau with highly eroded mountains, the Jos Plateau, at 1200 m altitude. From here the rivers flow in all directions, but otherwise the rivers flow mainly to the south. Most important are Niger and Benue, who intersect the country from respectively. NV and NO; they meet in the middle of the country and flow south to the great Niger Delta at Bonny Bay. To the southeast, the country rises abruptly towards the border with Cameroon.

The climate is tropical; In southern Nigeria the temperatures are quite constant and above 30 °C. There are two rainy seasons and two dry times, and a high humidity makes the heat appear depressing. In Northern Nigeria, the climate is dry and there is only one rainy season (June-August). The average temperatures are quite constant, but there can be large day-to-day fluctuations, from 45 °C during the day to 5-10 ° at night. From November to March, the dry Harmattan sand and dust from the Sahara blows inland.

The natural plant growth reflects the rainfall and varies from swampy lagoon and delta areas with mangroves and rainforest in the south to the Sahel belt’s dry bush steeple to the north. In the past there has been a lot of wildlife in Nigeria, but many species are now few or totally extinct.


Most statistical information for Nigeria is subject to great uncertainty, but with over 130 million. For example, the country is among the world’s ten most populous and population growth is almost 2.4% per year. Although the many ethnic groups each have their own language, history and culture, there are certain common features, among others. the multi-generational extended family system in the same household.

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The largest population groups are ibo (see igbo), yoruba as well as hausa and fulani, which represent important language and cultural features in respectively. Eastern, Western and Northern Nigeria. By population, Hausa is the largest group. In Middle Nigeria, tive and nupe and the largest concentration of smaller ethnic groups, many of whom live relatively isolated. These groups could each have been significant if they had been part of an African state formation other than Nigeria. In addition to yoruba and ibo also live ibibio, ijaw and edo in Southern Nigeria. By independence in 1960, Nigeria was a federal state with three states; in 2006, there are 36 as well as a federal territory around the capital. The fragmentation in many states is an attempt to manage the major ethnic, social and economic disparities appropriately. There are Europeans, Asians and people from the Middle East in Nigeria, but they make up only a negligible share of the total population. Foreign workers from Ghana and other West African countries came to Nigeria in the 1970’s and 1980’s. They were attracted by the oil boom and the economic dynamics, but there was also an escape from drought and a hopeless economic situation in the home countries.

In 1960, around 15% of the population lived in cities, but this figure has grown to almost 50% in 2006. Lagos and Ibadan are the largest cities and they are growing rapidly. They are primarily Yoruba cities, and traditionally the Yorubans have been urban dwellers, feudally organized with the oba (king) residing in the city’s palace. Other urban formations are the ancient Hausa and Fulani cities of Kano and Katsina in Northern Nigeria, which emerged before the 1200’s. They were important craft and trade towns for the hinterland farmers and cattle nomads and for the trading caravans crossing the Sahara. Here, too, lies the regent’s, the emir’s, a palace in the middle of the city from which the local Hausa population was ruled by their Fulani conquerors. Kano is now a modern metropolis and serves as a kind of capital for Northern Nigeria. In southern Nigeria, where the residents are dominant, society is less hierarchical; here are fewer big cities, and the village group is traditionally the highest form of political organization.

Lagos is the city that has grown the most and here a large part of Nigeria’s investments in trade and industry have been made. The city was the capital of 1960-91, but for political reasons and to seek a more even geographical development of the country, a new capital, Abuja, was located centrally in the country and built from the ground up.


The large amount of oil money has led to a large increase in the number of cars. It is difficult for the roads to follow the increasing traffic pressure.

Agriculture is the profession that employs most. There are many different agricultural systems, both with arable farming and nomadic animal husbandry. Just over a third of the area is cultivated. In particular, the large rainfall differences determine the distribution of crops. To the north, drought-tolerant crops such as millet, sorghum and, increasingly, corn are widespread. To the south are grown, among other things. yams, cassava and flour bananas. In addition, export crops such as cotton and peanuts (especially to the north), cocoa production further south and palm oil and rubber in the rainforest region. Over generations, a form of symbiosis between farmers and nomads has evolved. The nomads especially keep cows, sheep and goats, and some are also traders. After the peasants have harvested, the fields are grazed by the nomadic animal flocks that supply fertilizer. When the animals are slaughtered and the meat is sold, the herds are driven south, but the annual migrations have become increasingly difficult as the traditional migratory routes disappear in modern development. In 2006, agriculture accounted for 27% of GDP.

Industry. During the colonial period, the local textile industry was not allowed to grow, but after independence it quickly became the leading industry in Nigeria’s industry. In the state development plans, efforts were made to replace consumer goods imports with local production; the remedy was a protectionist industrial and trade policy with the use of tariff barriers. It was the state’s policy that oil revenues should be invested in infrastructure development, etc., and that the construction of the processing industry should not be based solely on foreign companies. The state emphasized a Nigerizationof the sector and supported joint ventures. Industry development occurred especially in southwestern Nigeria, but the state called for some diversification. 1980 there were approximately 100 larger textile factories with approximately 100,000 workers, making the Nigerian textile industry the third largest in Africa (after Egypt and South Africa). By 2002, however, the number of textile mills had dropped to around 40.

Oil. Around 1970, oil extraction became a very significant source of income for the country. The oil fields are located in the Niger Delta and off the coast. Already in 1973, oil accounted for 60% of the state’s revenue and 80% of exports. Nigeria was a member of OPEC and with the major price increases, oil income 3 1/2However, government spending rose correspondingly, and with the subsequent fall in oil prices, Nigeria had to borrow large foreign loans. Since then, the country has been subject to a considerable foreign debt burden and various attempts at economic reform. The country is still heavily dependent on the oil sector, but a wide range of industrial companies have been built up, which is gradually becoming quite strong in the West African export market. In 2006, the oil sector accounted for 95% of Nigeria’s exports, covered 65% of government revenue and contributed 20% of GDP.

Floods made 50,000 homeless in 2001, and the oil sector has been hit by several explosions; oil spills have contaminated large agricultural areas in the Niger Delta. Oil interests have sparked disagreement over the border with Cameroon, Chad and Equatorial Guinea. Cameroon and Nigeria have brought their case before the International Court of Justice in The Hague. The disputed Bakassi Peninsula was granted to Cameroon in 2002 by the International Court of Justice in The Hague, but it was not until 2006 that Nigeria finally agreed to withdraw its forces from the area. In 2003, the first Nigerian satellite was sent into orbit.

Nigeria – language

Nigeria – language, Of the country approximately 470 languages ​​are the four largest Afro-Asiatic Hausa in the north and the Niger-Kordofan languages fulani in the north, yoruba in the southwest and ibo in the southeast. There are also some Nilo-Saharan languages, such as kanuri. In addition to English, Hausa and Yoruba, each spoken by over 20% of the population, as well as ibo (about 17%) are official languages. For culture and traditions of Nigeria, please check aparentingblog.