Norway. The Kingdom of Norway or simply Norway (in Norwegian Kongeriket Norge, in Nynorsk Kongeriket Noreg, in Sami Norga gonagasriika), is a monarchical state of northern Europe. The name seems to come from nor veg, the way to the north. It has been populated for 12,000 years. Oslo is the capital city of Norway according to itypejob.
The official language is Norwegian – in its two written forms: Bokmål and Nynorsk – a Nor-Germanic language directly related to Danish and Swedish. For the most part, Norwegian, Danish, and Swedish speakers can easily understand each other.
Norwegian architecture is known for its characteristic wooden churches built from the 11th century onwards.
Norway is the only country in Northern Europe where several medieval wooden churches still remain intact. Indeed, during the Middle Ages, when all Europe was covered with stone churches, Norway, for its part, used the wood from its forests to build its own and to build its famous Drakkares. To support the framework, thick beams were erected, nailed first to the ground and then to sills; hence the name of upright timber churches (in Norwegian “Stavkirke”.)
Most of them have magnificent interior decoration and splendid ornaments: elaborately carved portals, dragon heads at the top of the ceilings. Of the almost 750 churches that must have existed, today there are only about thirty, of unparalleled beauty and unique in the world, that cannot be missed. The largest is in Heddal, the most famous in Borgund. Urnes deserves a special mention, one of the oldest, dating from the beginning of the 11th century and which was declared a WorldHeritage Site by UNESCO.
The Scandinavian country maintains many of its cultural traditions, and many of its residents dress up in typical costumes at weddings and events. Secular dances and songs, as well as storytellers, are also popular.
Norway has been the birthplace of such relevant artists as the painter Edvard Munch, the composer Edvard Grieg, the mathematician Caspar Wessel, the sculptor Gustav Vigeland and the playwright Henrik Ibsen. He has also brought the world three Nobel Prize winners in literature: Bjornstjerne Bjornson, Sigrid Undset, Knut Hamsun,
The Norwegian coat of arms is made up of a single field of gules (red) with a rampant gold lion, linguado, clawed, armed and crowned, carrying an ax with a silver blade and a gold handle.
The shield is topped with a royal crown. It is considered that its origin is linked to King Erik Magnusson and that it dates back to the year 1280. The current design dates from 1992, it has a schematic character. The tenants (figures that frequently surround the coats of arms), which were two lions, have been removed.
The monarch uses as personal weapons a version that incorporates the necklace of the Order of Saint Olaf and an ermine cloak but in which the figures of the tenants have also been removed.
The Norwegian flag is a red rectangular cloth with a blue cross with a white border. Their ratio is: 11/8.
It dates back to 1821, the date on which the Government ratified the law that established its colors and its drawing. The red, white and blue colors are the colors of freedom, the same as in the flag of the United States or the United Kingdom, or even in the tricolor flag, a French revolutionary symbol. The cross is the same as on the national flags of Denmark and Sweden.
The Resolution was taken by the Government in 1821, but without royal consent, since the King was empowered only to sanction a limited use of the Norwegian flag.
This flag could only float in Norwegian waters, and Norwegian ships circulating south of Cape Finisterre had to raise the Swedish flag when this cape was passed, and this because of the risk of attacks by North African pirates, who did not recognize the Norwegian flag.
In 1838, the king authorized the use of the Norwegian flag for the rest of the world, while the military had to always use the Swedish flag with the “Union Symbol” in the upper quarter near the pole.
Oslo was founded by King Harald Hardrade in approximately 1048 AD but in its beginnings it was not one of the first cities in importance of the country since the flourishing and consolidated commercial city of Bergen and the religious capital called Nidaros far exceeded it in expansion and development.
In 1314 King Haakon V, who was the first monarch to permanently reside in the city, was the one who names it as the capital.
The city was almost entirely destroyed by several fires that raged in the Middle Ages but it was rebuilt.
It lost its capital status during the union with Denmark, as Norway was the weakest party; for which it was reduced only to be the administrative city of the Danish power.
In the 16th century, with the arrival of the Reformation, the many churches and convents abundant in resources, were plundered and abandoned to ruin after the fires that ravaged the city, many of them were destroyed to use the Stone in other construction works.. This reform marked a setback in the development of the city.
After being burned and destroyed, it was rebuilt in the early eighteenth century, which was a time of prosperity, which experienced economic growth thanks to maritime trade and the export of wood.
The nineteenth century was a period of progress and expansion for the city and several buildings were built such as the Royal Palace, the University, the Storting and the National Theater among others, in this stage new neighborhoods emerged where immigrants seeking employment in the new factories that were established in the second half of this century. This growth was responsible for Cristianía (the name given to the city years ago) displacing Bergen as the most populous city in Norway in 1850.
The city continued to grow as more areas were incorporated until in 1924, the original name of Oslo was restored.
In 1950 the Oslo City Hall was finally inaugurated, which is the place where the Nobel Peace Prize is awarded every December 10.
In April of 1940 the German invasion of Norway was among the main objectives to Oslo, because the Nazis needed this port to maintain supplies to troops in Narvik, to the north.
The Nazis decided to stop the naval attack on Oslo due to the strong coastal defenses that even sank the German cruiser Blücher on April 9, however the attack was immediate and the Norwegian government was able to escape from the capital, taking with it the Gold reserves, but German paratroopers seized the [[airfield | Airfield] |, which offered little resistance and thus entered and occupied Oslo.
Today Oslo continues to be a source of controversy and friction due to its importance as a political, cultural and economic capital within the whole of Norway.
The municipality of Oslo is divided into 15 districts which are the following:
- Gamle Oslo: the oldest in the city, corresponding to the medieval city. It contains Hallvard’s Cathedral, St. Olaf’s Monastery, and the Munch Museum.
- Grünerløkka: it is an industrial area and houses for the working classes, it has many cafes, bars and parks, which is why it is quite frequented by the youth.
- Sagene: It is the smallest district, it stretches along the Akerselva River and is home to various modern industries, especially information technology and design.
- Hanshaugen: occupies the center of Oslo, which includes most of the city’s sites of interest, as well as the administrative area and the commercial and business area.
- Frogner: it is one of the richest districts of Oslo, occupied by luxurious mansions located in a central area by the sea. There the Frogner Park and several museums are located, among which the Vigeland Museum, the Viking Ship Museum and the Norwegian Folk Museum stand out.
- Ullern: is one of the western limits of the municipality, includes single-family neighborhoods and modern commercial and office areas, also has Skoyen Park and the western section of Frogner Park.
- Vestre Aker: it is located in the northwest of the city, in an area of hills and forests called Holmenkollen, it is one of its richest districts. includes the old neighborhoods of Vinderen and Roa. Here is the Holmenkollen ski jumping jump, which is one of the most famous in the world.
- Nordre Aker: it is located north of the city; close to downtown and wooded areas, it includes single-family residences and horizontal condominiums, but also an important sporting activity. Here is located Lake Maridalsvannet, one of Oslo’s main drinking water reserves.
- Bjerke: It is one of the most densely populated areas of the city, with condominium houses and apartment buildings.
- Grorud: It is an old rural area that includes multi-family houses. Here lives a considerable immigrant population.
- Stovner: it is located east of the Grorud industrial zone, it is a residential area where the Stovner Center shopping center is located, one of the largest in the city.
- Alna: It is an important industrial district that has a dense area largely populated by workers. It is the most populated district, with more than 45,000 residents according to the 2008 census.
- Ostensjø: southern suburb of the city. It is a picturesque residential area where is located the Lake Østensjøvannet important Nature reserve of wildlife.
- Nordstrand: it is located east of the Oslo Fjord. It has high-level residential areas.
- Søndre Nordstrand: marks the southern limit of the municipality and is considered the newest district, it is the area with the largest immigrant population in Oslo.
It is the main city from the educational point of view of all Norway and home to several university institutions, it has the largest and oldest university in all of Norway with about 30,000 students which is the University of Oslo, which was founded in 1811.
The city also has the University College of Oslo, an institution that carries out the largest offer of professional studies and constitutes the largest public university in Norway with more than 11,000 students.
In the world of the arts, it has the National Academy of Arts and the National Higher School of Music, which makes it the center of this sphere of education.
The city also has several important public institutes at the national level such as the specialized university colleges of Veterinary Medicine, Physical Education, Architecture, Design and one of the two Police, it also has the War School.
In the area of private institutions, it has the largest private higher school in Norway and one of the largest trade schools in Europe, the BI Higher School of Trade, with an enrollment of 18,700 students. Another important center is the Rudolf Steiner School, consecrated in the teaching of Pedagogy.
The city has some more schools but these are religious in nature, dedicated to training catechists, deacons and pastors, although they also offer studies on Nursing, Health, social work and Occupational Therapy.