Pakistan (Islamic Republic of Pakistan). South Asian state. It borders Afghanistan, China, India, Iran, and the Arabian Sea. Its area is 803,000 km². It is one of the most populous countries on the planet, with more than 170 million residents, the majority Muslim. Islamabad is the capital city of Pakistan according to itypemba.
The country extends through the Indus basin, at the foot of the Himalayas, and is bordered to the east by the Thar desert and to the west by the Afghan mountains.
The Urdu and English are the official languages, living with different native languages like Punjabi (the most widely spoken in Pakistan), Pashto, Sindhi and saraik.
It is a country characterized by drought and extreme temperatures and altitudes. The country is divided by the Indus River, which enters from the northeast and flows south to empty into the Arabian Sea or Sea of Oman.
The Indus forms the dividing line of two of the country’s physiographic areas: the Indus Plain, which runs along the eastern bank of the river, and the Baluchistan Plateau, to the southwest. Four other physiographic areas also stand out: the coastal plain, a narrow strip of land that borders the Arabian Sea; the Jaran Basin, west of the Baluchistan Plateau; the Thar Desert (or Great Indian Desert), which lies on both sides of the border with India in the southeast; and the mountains of the north and northwest, at the foot of the Himalayas and the Hindu Kush.
The Indus Plain south of the northern mountain systems ranges in width from 80 to 320 km and covers an area of approximately 518,000 km2. From north to south there are two important regions, the Punjab Plain and the Sind Plain. The first is the most important agrarian area of the Republic, taking advantage of the flow of several tributaries of the Indus, such as the Sutlej, Ravi, Chenab and Jhelum rivers, although floods are also very frequent due to their torrential nature. Further south, in the lower reaches of Indus, is the Sind plain, whose natural aridity is offset by irrigation works carried out to promote agriculture.
To the west of these plains, a series of mountain systems, notably the Toba Kakar Range, the Siahan Range, the Suleiman Range and the Kīrthar Range, border the Upper Baluchistan Plateau, a very dry region, which It is recently suitable for agriculture, where only a few nomadic shepherds live.
The highest peak is K2 (or Godwin Austen) which, at 8,611 m above sea level, is the second highest mountain in the world after Everest. K2 is in the Karakorum mountain range, in the Jammu and Kashmir region controlled by Pakistan. Also noteworthy are Nanga Parbat (8,125 m) and Mir (7,690 m) in the Hindu Kush. The Jyber Pass, on the Pakistan-Afghanistan border, divides the Safed Koh range.
The climate is continental and the country is one of the driest regions of the Indian subcontinent. The North receives abundant rainfall, while the South is arid. However, periods of flooding and drought are variable and as frequent.
The most important river courses are the, Indus and its tributaries, Jhelum, Ravi, Chenab, Beas and Sutlej.
The vegetation of Pakistan varies according to altitude and rainfall. In most of the country the natural vegetation is limited to drought-resistant grasses and shrubs. Alpine vegetation develops on the slopes of the mountains. On the more humid slopes there are forests of spruce, holm oaks, chir or cheer pine and weeping or Himalayan cedars.
Pakistan has a diverse fauna. The most prominent species are deer, wild boar, bears, crocodiles, and waterfowl. There is also a wide variety of freshwater and saltwater fauna. The most important marine species are herring, mackerel and sharks, as well as shellfish.
It is one of the most populated countries in the world, and has a rural population, concentrated in the eastern region. It is made up of various ethnic groups: Punjabis, Sindhis, Pathans, Baluchis, and Paleoindians (Bengalis).
The main economic activity is agriculture, in which cereal crops, sesame, sugar cane, rice, textile products and horticultural products stand out. The scarce industry is located in the areas of Punjab and Karachi and textiles predominate. The currency is the Pakistani rupee.
Its mining resources include salt, chromium, coal, gypsum, limestone, iron ore, sulfur, clay, graphite, copper, oil and natural gas.
63.70% of electrical energy is produced in thermal power plants and most of the remaining energy is generated in hydroelectric facilities, among which is the great Tarbela project on the Indus River. Pakistan also has a small nuclear sector: a nuclear power plant located near Karachi contributes about 2.35% of total production.
Foreign trade, is based on large exports of raw materials base and products such as yarn of cotton, and imports of manufactured goods.
In Pakistan there is an indigenous film industry known as Lollywood, based in Lahore, currently producing more than 40 films a year.
Pakistani music is represented by a wide variety of aspects. From traditional styles, such as qawwali, to more modern styles that try to fuse traditional Pakistani music with western music. Pop music is also prevalent, with the original soundtracks of its films being especially important. In addition, there are the various traditions of folk music.
The northern regions of Pakistan are home to several historical forts, towers and constructions such as the Hunza and the Chitral valleys, the latter being home to the Kalash, a small pre-Islamic animist community. Punjab is also the site of Alexander’s battle on the Jhelum River. The historic city of Lahore is considered the cultural center of Pakistan and has many examples of Mughal architecture, such as the Badshahi Mosque, Shalimar Gardens, Tomb of Jahangir, and Lahore Fort. Tourism is a growing industry in Pakistan because of its diverse cultures, peoples, and landscapes.
The variety of attractions ranges from the ruins of ancient civilizations such as Mohenjo-Daro, Harappa and Taxila, to the Himalayan hill stations, which attract those interested in the countryside and winter sports. Pakistan also has several mountain peaks high over 7000 meters, which attract adventurers and mountaineers from all over the world, especially to K2. From April to September, national and international tourists visit these areas as tourism helps to become a source of income for the local population. Most of the tourists come from other Asian countries. In Baluchistan there are many caves for cavers and tourists visiting it, Juniper shaft cave, Murghagull Gharra cave, AEA Mughall cave and naturally decorated cave. International Union of Speleology (UIS).
Pakistani cuisine is very similar to that of India, with certain Muslim variations. It is influenced by Arab, Turkish and Persian traditions, called Mongolian cuisine, and is found mostly in Lahore. The dishes are less spicy than in India, but they use subtle mixtures of saffron, cardamom, sesame, and cloves, as well as lots of yogurt to neutralize the spiciness of the spices. In most menus, you will find a wide range of meats and poultry accompanied by spicy sauces (masala), cooked in ragú (bhuna ghost), baked (tandoori), marinated in yogurt (korma) or in the form of skewers ( kebab). Biryani is a rice steamed, richly seasoned and served in a sauce of chicken, lamb or fish meat. The pilao is the same recipe, but less specialized, and the sag ghost is a lamb curry with spinach.
Most dishes are served with lentils (dal), raita (yogurt sauce spiced with salt, pepper and coriander) and wheat cakes (chapati, paratha or naan). Among the desserts, the halvas, sweets with nuts or caramel filled with almonds and pistachios, or the shahi tukra, a cream flavored with pistachios and almonds. The meal is accompanied by lassi, frozen liquid yogurt or black tea (shai) with milk, sugar and cardamom.
The national sport in Pakistan is field hockey, although cricket is the most popular throughout the country. The national cricket team won the Cricket World Cup in 1992). He was runner-up once (in 1999), and co-host of the games twice (in 1987and 1996). Pakistan was runner-up at the opening of the 2007 ICC World Twenty tournament held in South Africa, and they are the 2009 ICC World Twenty20 champions held in England. Squash is another sport that Pakistanis have excelled at, with world-class squash players such as Jahangir Khan and Jansher Khan winning the World Open several times during their careers. Internationally, Pakistan has competed several times in the Summer Olympics in field hockey, boxing, track and field, swimming and shooting. Hockey is Pakistan’s most successful sport at the Olympics, with three gold medals in (1960, 1968 and 1984). Pakistan has also won the Hockey World Cup four times (1971, 1978, 1982, 1994). The Pakistan Motorsport Association is a member of the International Automobile Federation. Pakistan is a member country of the TUI (International Union of Speleology). Every year the Freedom Rally is an off-road race that takes place during the Independence celebrations. Pakistan also qualified for the Golf World Cup for the first time in 2009.
As a Muslim nation, it is heavily influenced by Islamic culture and traditions, yet Hindu and British cultural influences are widespread in the country.
In Karachi there are some of the most important libraries in the country, such as the Liaqat Memorial Library, the Central Secretariat Library and the University of Karachi Library. The National Archives of Pakistan, in Islamabad, and the PunjabPublic Library, in Lahore. The National Museum of Pakistan in Karachi contains important objects from the Indus Valley civilizations, as well as Buddhist and Islamic relics. Collections of significant cultural value are exhibited in the Lahore Museum and the Peshawār Museum. In Lahore there is a museum of industry and commerce.
The majority religion is Muslim, although there are Hindu and Christian minorities. Although most of the Muslims belong to the Sunni rite, there are other minority groups among which the Shiites stand out.
Official holidays are:
- August 14, Independence Day.
- Islamic festivals that vary depending on the lunar calendar.