Peru, constitutionally, Republic of Peru. Country located in the central and western part of South America, whose territory borders the Pacific Ocean to the west and borders Ecuador to the northwest ; to the northeast, with Colombia ; to the east, with Brazil ; to the southeast, with Bolivia and to the south, with Chile. It has a complicated geographical, protean soil, dominated mainly by the elevations of the Andes Mountains. and the Pacific currents, rivers that flow to the east and west, which configure climates and landscapes as significantly varied and dissimilar as: the desert coast, the jalca and janka of the high Andes or the tropical forest of the Amazon basin All environments that present the country as a territory of great diversity of natural resources. Eight natural regions are indicated: chala, yunka, quechua, suni, jalka, hanka, rupa rupa and omagua. Lima is the capital city of Peru according to simplyyellowpages.
At the beginning of the second century BC, the States began to dispute, for periods, the control of the peoples of the Andes. Towards the 16th century, the most late and extensively dominated by these States, the Inca Empire was annexed by Spanish conquerors with the support of dissident ethnic groups to the Inca domain. The Spanish crown thus established a viceroyalty that included most of its South American colonies. In 1821, the country became independent, founding a State that was immersed in periods of internal and external conflicts alternated with periods of economic prosperity.
Peru as a word is so far of origin and meaning not yet reliably explained and even controversial. “Peru” would derive from the name of a cacique whose domains were in the Darien area (present-day Colombia) and who was referred to by the Spanish by other indigenous people as the owner and master of the lands that were to the south of Panama. From then on, everything that was explored south of Panama would be vulgarly called ‘Peru’ (Castilianization of Birú)  . In Peru there are two versions: Porras Barrenachea, who was in favor of Cuba in the OAS disavowal, and José Antonio del Busto Duthurburu. The Spanish crown gave the name an arbitrary unilateral ‘legal’ status in 1529 with the Capitulation of Toledo, which designated the country of Tahuantinsuyo as the Government of Nueva Castilla. It was not until 1542 that the name of ‘Peru’ became the official name of the territory when the viceroyalty regime was established with its capital Lima and whose jurisdiction would span from Panama to Tierra del Fuego.
With a population of 28,220,764 residents according to the 2007 Census, Peru is the fourth most populous country in South America. Its population density is 22 residents per km² and its annual growth rate is 1.6%. 54.6% of the Peruvian population lives on the coast, 32.0% in the mountains, and 13.4% in the jungle.
The urban population is equivalent to 76% and the rural population to 24% of the total. The largest cities are located on the coast, such as Piura, Chiclayo, Trujillo, Chimbote, Lima, Ica.
In the mountains, the cities of Arequipa, Cajamarca, Ayacucho, Huancayo and Cuzco stand out. Finally, in the jungle, Iquitos is the most important, followed by Pucallpa, Tarapoto and Moyabamba.
Peru is a country that has grown in tourism in recent years, closing 2017 with more than 4 million foreign tourists. Its main attractions are its culture and archaeological heritage, with Machu Picchu and Cusco being its most visited tourist attractions. Its gastronomy and natural landscapes also complement its tourist offer.
The main tourist routes in Peru are in the southern highlands: Cusco (Machu Picchu and the Sacred Valley of the Incas), Arequipa (the Colca Canyon and its city with colonial architecture) and Puno (Lake Titicaca and the floating islands of the Uros). The Amazon is another of Peru’s main attractions, such as the Tambopata National Reserve in Madre de Dios.
To travel to Peru, you must first know if it is necessary to apply for a tourist visa. The countries that require a tourist visa are:
- America: Cuba, El Salvador, Haiti and Nicaragua
- Europe: Albania, Armenia, Azerbaijan, Bosnia, Georgia and Kosovo
- All countries in Africa , with the exception of South Africa
- All countries in Asia , with the exception of Brunei, Philippines, Indonesia, Israel, Japan, Malaysia, Korea, Singapore and Thailand
To travel to Peru, you can go with a travel agency or on your own.
The current valley of the Rímac river received the name of Límaq – according to the lambdacist pronunciation of coastal Quechua – or Rímaq – according to the pronunciation in the variants of the Quechua of the mountains – as a reference to the oracle (limaq) that today is known as Huaca de Santa Ana (“guaca of the Lima Indians who called themselves ychmas, was a round stone”). As in other place names, the final stop was finally eliminated when passing to the Spanish language, preferring over time the spelling “Lima” after coexisting in documents with the forms “Limac” and “Lyma”.
Today, Peruvians who speak the Quechua language know this city as Límaq, as they say “Limaqta aywashqa” (‘he has gone to Lima’). 
When the capital of the colony was founded on January 18, it was given the name of City of the Kings due to the proximity of the date with January 6, the day of the Magi (Epiphany) and perhaps also as a tribute to the Kings of Spain. However, the toponymic name of the region was always maintained, which little by little was consolidated on the founding name, by which the new populated center ended up being known as the city of Lima. The name of the river, on the other hand, had its spelling altered according to the uses of the Third Council of Lima, influenced by Aymara pronunciation habits, as with many other place names of Quechua origin.