Poland Medieval Arts - Lesser Poland

Poland Medieval Arts – Lesser Poland

Little Poland (Polish Małopolska), in the basin of the upper and middle Vistula, is bounded to the South by the Carpathians, to the West by Upper Silesia, to the North by Masovia, to the East by the Land of Chełm and Przemyśl; to the SE the border was marked by the high course of the Wisłok River. The Little Poland currently includes the voivodships of Bielsko-Biała, Katowice, Krakow, Częstochowa, Piotrków, Nowy Sa̢cz, Tarnów, Kielce, Radom, Krosno, Rzeszów, Tarnobrzeg, Przemyśl, Zamość and partially of Chełm and Sied. The denomination Polonia Minor, which in the sources is attested only from 1412, was born in opposition to that of Polonia Maior. 5 ° and 6 °, attempts to create in the century are known from the sources. 9 ° in the western part of the Piccola Poland a state of the Vistolans, who towards the 880-905 they ceded to the Moravians and then – together with them – to the Bohemians; at the end of the century. 10 ° the Little Poland was annexed to the State of Gniezno and in the year 1000 a bishopric was created in Krakow including the Little Poland and part of Silesia. The fundamental nucleus of the territory assumed its configuration in the century. 11th, since starting from 1040 ca. the role of the Little Poland began to acquire importance, due to the devastation suffered by the Big Poland and also thanks to an intense economic development; Krakow became the capital of Poland. The division into Land of Krakow and Land of Sandomierz was consolidated after the death (1138) of Boleslao III Boccatorta, with the creation of two principalities, which were reunited again in the 13th century. With Krakow as the capital of the reunified kingdom of Poland (1320) and of the provinces, the Little Poland became the politically dominant region in a relatively well developed state. Little Poland’s art is inseparably connected with Krakow’s artistic production; therefore its phases and the different artistic genres must be examined jointly.

The attested existence of over three hundred wooden castles surrounded by embankments confirms the building activity of the Slavs in the centuries. 8 ° -10 °, while the masonry architecture made its debut in the second half of the century. 10th (e.g. in Krakow). At the state of research it is difficult to solve the problem of the chronology, reconstruction and function of the remains of the buildings excavated in Wiślica: both the structure for religious use and the palace and the rotunda can be dated to between the century. 11th and half of the next. Among the oldest buildings, in addition to those of Krakow, also the rotunda of Cieszyn, datable between the end of the century. 11th and mid-12th centuries, and the Benedictine church in Tyniec (1076-1079), a basilica with three naves closed by three apses, known from excavations; the capitals of the cloister have decorative motifs of Italian origin. The eastern border of Romanesque architecture in Europe roughly coincided with the eastern border of the Little Poland, a region in which Romanesque architecture is represented by the collegiate church of Opatów, of the second quarter of sec. 12th: a pillared basilica with transept and western body with two towers with Alsatian characters. The churches with a nave erected from the century. 11 ° to 13 ° show strong differences between them, as shown by those of Prandocin (early 12th century) and Jedrzejów (rebuilt), connected with shops in the Rhineland, or that of Wysocice. Simple small churches prevail, without towers, with the characteristic western women’s gallery (Siewierz, Kije, Zagość); more monumental forms had the traditional three-nave basilica, with women’s gallery, in Kościelec (c. 1230), which also has similarities in the Rhineland. The most famous and rare Romanesque work of the Piccola Poland consists of two tombstones (1166-1177), once in the lost crypt of the Romanesque church below the collegiate church of the Nativity in Wiślica; they were made with a plaster mixture by a craftsman from Saxony and are engraved with a drawing, filled with dark impasto, representing six figures: a princely family in adoration.: Jedrzejów (early 13th century), Koprzywnica (early 13th century), Sulejów (before 1232) and Wa̢chock (second quarter 13th century), exemplified in plan, in the system of spans and in the type of vaults, on the model of Burgundian solutions, but which in the plastic decoration and architectural details attest to the participation of an Italian (Wa̢chock) or German (Koprzywnica) workshop; instead in Mogiła, near Krakow (second quarter 13th century), there is a certain dependence on the architecture of the Saxon Cistercians. Almost simultaneously the Dominicans, who had just settled in the region, quickly built the longitudinal body of the Romanesque basilica of S. Giacomo in Sandomierz (ca. 1226-1235), characterized by a spatial system deriving from the Southwestern German architecture and a rich ceramic decoration of Lombard origin, for which, however, no reference model has been found; together with the eastern wing of the convent, the church is one of the most important testimonies of the first Dominican architecture in Europe. For Poland 2007, please check extrareference.com.

The characteristic typology of Franciscan churches – with a rectangular layout, with a longitudinal roof-covered body, prolonged by the vaulted presbytery (for example in Zawichost and Nowy Korczyn) – was consolidated towards the middle of the 13th century. Poland is well represented by the group of buildings, which stylistically already attests a late Gothic trend, founded by King Casimir III the Great in the third quarter of the century. 14th: the interiors of the longitudinal bodies with two naves of the parish churches in Niepołomice, Stopnica, Szydłów and Wiślica are closed by star vaults which, in connecting the supports, cancel the division into spans and naves. In these churches, as well as in the collegiate church of the Nativity of the Virgin in Sandomierz (ca. 1360-1380), similar to them, on the keystones there are numerous coats of arms of the state and, for the first time, of the territory; the vastness of this heraldic iconographic program is unparalleled. The one-pillar churches in Kurzelów, Skotniki, Chybice and Stró’zyska (sixties and seventies of the 14th century) are modeled on the first architectures of the court workshop. stone sculpture; In the second half of the century. 14th continued to dominate the softly linear, flat style of the years 1340-1360. In many centers of the Southern Little Poland the sculptures were made above all by itinerant artists. In mural painting the production intensified from the middle of the century. 14 ° and, until the middle of the following, Italian stylistic elements can be seen, coming through Bohemia and Hungary, particularly evident in the polychromy of the church of Niepołomice (ca. 1360), connected with the paintings of the chapel of the royal fortress in Esztergom, in Hungary, probably related to the Neapolitan environment rather than to the Florentine one. 14 °.

Poland Medieval Arts - Lesser Poland