|STATE STRUCTURE||parliamentary-presidential republic|
|INTERNAL DIVISION||Federation, the territory is subdivided into 85 subjects|
|CLIMATE||From polar to subtropical|
|POPULATION||OK. 147 million|
|NATIONAL COMPOSITION||Russians (80.90%), Tatars (3.87%), Ukrainians (1.41%), Bashkirs (1.15%), etc.|
|TIMEZONE||UTC+2 – UTC+12 / MSK-1 – MSK+9|
The flag of Russia is a rectangular panel of three equal horizontal stripes: the top one is white, the middle one is blue and the bottom one is red.
The State Emblem of the Russian Federation is a red heraldic shield with a golden double-headed eagle raising its outstretched wings. The eagle is crowned with two small crowns and – above them – one large crown, connected by a ribbon. In the right paw of the eagle is a scepter, in the left is an orb. On the red shield on the chest of the eagle is depicted a horseman slaying a dragon with a spear.
Russia is a country of two continents and the largest state in the world
According to Franciscogardening.com, Russia is located on two continents at once – in the eastern part of the European plain (23% of the territory; 3.96 million sq. km) and in the northern part of Asia (77% of the territory; 13.1 million sq. km). It has both sea and land borders. Its territory is washed by the waters of three oceans – the Pacific, the Arctic and the Atlantic.
The Russian climate varies from arctic to subtropical. It can be noted a clear zonality of flora and fauna, corresponding to different climatic zones. The diversity of fauna allows you to meet any kind of animal – from wolves and musk deer, hares, deer, elk and Przewalski’s horses to bears and even Amur tigers.
The foundation of the statehood of Russia was laid in 862 by the Varangian Rurik. Under the Grand Duke Vladimir in 988, Russia was baptized in Chersonese (Crimea). The Russian principalities were conquered by Batu Khan in 1237-42. The reign of the Golden Horde continued until 1480. In the 16th century, Russia took possession of Siberia, Kazan and Astrakhan. In the era of Catherine the Great, Crimea, Georgia and Ingushetia join. In the middle of the 19th century, a huge territory in Central Asia entered Russia. In the Far East, the country extended its influence to Uighuria and founded Vladivostok.
In 1917, after the October Revolution, Russia became part of the Soviet Union. On June 22, 1941, Nazi Germany attacked the USSR. On May 9, 1945, the USSR victoriously ends the war. After the war, the first artificial Earth satellite was launched, the first manned flight into space, the first flight to the Moon, and the creation of atomic energy were carried out. The Soviet period of history ends in 1991.
After Vladimir Putin was elected President of Russia in 1999, a number of trans-Eurasian treaties were developed and signed – the CSTO, the SCO, the Customs Union of the countries of the Eurasian Economic Union, the Eurasian Economic Union, etc.
84 stable historical national communities live in Russia. They, in turn, are divided into more than 190 native ethnic groups, among which the most numerous category is Russians (77.7%) and Tatars (3.72%). Confessional Russians are mostly Orthodox Christians. But Muslims also live in the country, as well as adherents of Judaism, Catholicism, Buddhism and shamanism.
At the same time, the diversity of climatic zones and living conditions dictates the diversity of national traditions. Nevertheless, all the peoples of the country observe common holidays: New Year, Women’s Day, Victory Day, Defender of the Fatherland Day, Knowledge Day, Russia Day (June 12) and National Unity Day (November 4).
Currently, Russia has an 11-year system of secondary education. There are more than 650 universities in the field of higher education in the country.
The Russians are leading in hockey, cross-country skiing, figure skating, rhythmic gymnastics, diving, biathlon, synchronized swimming, boxing, wrestling and fencing.
A number of remarkable scientists allowed world science to make fundamental discoveries: I.P. Kulibin (searchlight), D.I. Mendeleev (Periodic Table of Chemical Elements), V.K. Zworykin (television and electron microscope), A.S. Popov (radio ), K.E. Tsiolkovsky (rocket science and astronautics), I.I. Sikorsky (creation of a bomber and a helicopter), P.N. Yablochkov and A.N. Lodygin (electric light bulb), I.V. Kurchatov (NPP)…
The traditions of the Russian ballet school of the Bolshoi Theater (R. Nureyev, M. Baryshnikov, M. Plisetskaya) are unparalleled. The galaxy of Russian composers is known all over the world: A.N. Skryabin, P.I. Tchaikovsky, S.V. Rakhmaninov, S.S. Prokofiev, N.A. Rimsky-Korsakov, M.I. Glinka, A.S. Dargomyzhsky and many others.
The works of A.S. Pushkin, M.Yu. Lermontov, F.M. Dostoevsky, L.N. Tolstoy, B.L. Pasternak, A.P. Chekhov, I.A. Bunin, V.V. Nabokov, M.A. Sholokhov were awarded many higher literary awards, including the Nobel Prize.
It is difficult to imagine painting without the world-famous I.K. Aivazovsky, Kramskoy, K. Bryulov, A.I. Kuindzhi, B.M. Kustodiev, V.A. .I.Shishkin, K.A.Korovin, A.A.Ivanov and other great names.
Ancient cities – Vladimir, Suzdal, Kolomna, Yaroslavl, Kostroma, Gus Khrustalny, Uglich, Ivanovo, Tver, Veliky Novgorod, Murom, Ryazan – will satisfy any tourist. St. Petersburg is also called “an open-air palace”.