Singapore is an island state in Southeast Asia, located at the southern end of the Malacca Peninsula, between the Strait of Malacca and the South China Sea. It includes 59 minor islets (20 of which are uninhabited) and the island of the same name (581 km 2), connected to the Malay peninsula, on the Strait of Johor, by road and rail viaduct.
In terms of altitude, the island is mainly flat, with a series of central granite hills with modest altitudes (the highest is Bukit Timah, 175 m). The port of Singapore opens, to the S, on the only rocky stretch of coast. The island, located at about 1 ° N latitude, is subject to an equatorial climate with high and constant average annual temperatures (24- 31 ° C) and considerable rainfall (over 2400 mm). The vegetation corresponding to the climatic typology has been replaced by crops and by the continuous enlargement of the urban settlement of Singapore and the original equatorial forest, still present inside the island, slightly exceeds 3% of the territorial surface. Mangrove formations are frequent on the north coast.
Between the end of the 13th and the end of the 14th century. Singapore was a commercial center of some importance, but later underwent a decline and remained almost uninhabited until the 19th century. In 1819 TS Raffles established a trading base there on behalf of the British East India Company. The economic development recorded in the second half of the 19th century. caused rapid population growth, particularly as a result of the influx of immigrants from China. Occupied from 1942 to 1945 by Japanese troops, in 1946, due to its great commercial and strategic importance, Singapore was established as a separate colony and in 1959 obtained self-government. Part of the Federation of Malaysia since 1963, it left it in 1965, becoming an independent republic.
According to localcollegeexplorer, the Popular Action Party (PAP), in power since 1959, is the undisputed arbiter of political life. Initially of social democratic inspiration, the PAP progressively changed its orientation, developing a rigidly repressive internal policy and imposing an almost total control of information. In 1990 Lee Kuan Yew, prime minister since 1959, was succeeded by Goh Chok Tong, and in 2004, under a planned political agreement, Lee Hsien Loong, eldest son of former Prime Minister Lee Kuan Yew, became Prime Minister. In 2005, a second presidential term was conferred on SR Nathan (in office since 1999), after all the other candidates had been placed out of competition because they lacked the strict requirements established by law. In 2006, the PAP won the legislative elections again and clearly. During 2007 and 2008, the political situation did not change, and despite the warnings of international organizations, the government continued to strictly control information and political opponents. In foreign policy, the country has intensified relations with the United States and collaborated with Malaysia to resolve still open territorial disputes. Since 2008, Singapore’s economy, which is heavily dependent on exports, has been hit hard by the global recession, although the situation has improved slightly between 2009 and 2010. In terms of domestic politics, in the presidential elections held in September 2011, the former Deputy Prime Minister of the country T. Tan Keng Yam, who obtained 35.2% of the preferences, while at the legislative consultations held in September 2015, the PAP predictably achieved a new victory (70% of the votes), seeing Prime Minister Lee Hsien Loong confirmed, also reconfirmed in the consultations of July 2020. In September 2017 H. Yacob took over from President Tan Keng Yam; member of the PAP, she took office without elections, as the only candidate with the requisites necessary to become head of state.