Slovakia History

Slovakia History

According to localcollegeexplorer, the Slovakia takes its name from the Western-Slavic populations that in the 6th century. they settled there permanently. In 906 it fell under the Hungarian rule, remaining linked to Hungary until 1918, when it became part of independent Czechoslovakia. The Magyars settled en masse in some regions (Košice, Bratislava) and generally established themselves as the ruling class. First manifested in the first half of the 19th century, the Slovak national awakening took shape especially after the repression of the Hungarian revolution of 1848-49. ● After the signing of the Pittsburgh Pact, the Slovak National Council joined the proclamation of Czech independence in October 1918. The relationship between Czechs and Slovaks, however, constituted a constant problematic element in subsequent Czechoslovak history (➔ Czechoslovakia). The centralistic setting of the 1920 constitution and the prevalence of the economic interests of the more industrialized Czech regions favored the development of an autonomist tendency. In March 1939 the Slovakia proclaimed its independence under the leadership of the pro-Nazi J. Tiso, becoming a satellite state of Germany; between 1938 and 1944 the southern Slovakia was occupied by Hungary. It returned to be part of the Czechoslovak state in 1945. In 1969, a constitutional change established the Czechoslovakian federation: thus the Republic was born.Slovak socialist. The centralist policy developed by G. Husák in the following decades, however, left Slovak institutions without any real power, favoring the industrialization process of Slovakia instead. The economic disparities with Bohemia and Moravia were accentuated following the collapse of the socialist regime (1989) and the adoption of measures for the transition to a market economy: starting from 1990 the problem of a redefinition of the relationship between two states was at the center of the political debate. ● After the proclamation of the Republic in 1993, which sanctioned the definitive division of Czechoslovakia, the political life of the Slovakia took place in a climate of great uncertainty, marked by the institutional conflict between the head of the government, the nationalist V. Mečiar, leader of the Movement for Democratic Slovakia, and the President of the Republic M. Kováč. In 1998 the political elections were won by the center-left opposition, united in the Slovak Democratic Coalition, and its leader, the Christian Democrat M. Dzurinda, was appointed prime minister. In 1999, after the approval of the law on the direct election of the head of state, R. Schuster, a former Communist, leader of the Party of Civic Understanding, was elected. Despite numerous difficulties, the majority managed to proceed along the path of reforms and entry into the European Community. In 2004 Slovakia became a member of the European Union; previously there had also been entry into NATO. In the same year the Social Democrat I. Gašparovič was elected president (reconfirmed in 2009), and in 2006 the center-left of the Direction-Social Democracy (Smer-Sd) party of R. Fico achieved a majority in Parliament by leading a coalition until to 2010, when he was replaced at the helm of the executive by I. Radičová. Returned to the opposition, Fico has benefited from the government crisis in progress since 2011 to consolidate the relationship with the electorate and in March 2012 won the early legislative elections with a large majority (44.8%), winning 83 seats out of 150 in Parliament, a success also confirmed in the European elections of May 2014, although the following month he was defeated in the presidential elections by independent candidate A. Kiska. The political framework of the country was instead substantially changed by the consultations of March 2016, in which the premier’s party – while ranking first in the preferences of the voters – recorded a sharp decline in consensus, obtaining 28.2% of the votes (49 seats), followed by the liberal formation Freedom and Solidarity (12.09%, 21 seats), the conservatives and the far right, entered Parliament for the first time with our Kotleba-Slovak People’s Party (8.1%). At the head of a coalition government supported by his party, the nationalists of the Slovak National Party (SNS), the inter-ethnic Slovak-Hungarian party Most-Híd and the political force SIEŤ, Fico has again taken on the post of premier, from which he he resigned in March 2018 following the serious political crisis resulting from the murder of the journalist J. Kuciak, who was investigating the relationship between politics and the ‘Ndrangheta, taking over from him P. Pellegrini. The first round of the presidential consultations held in March 2019 recorded the clear affirmation of the liberal and pro-European candidate Z. Čaputová, who obtained 40.5% of the consensus against the 18.66% of the ruling party candidate M. Šefčovič, defeating him in the ballot with 58.4% of the votes and taking over from Kiska. The progressive Slovakia party of the new president established itself in the European elections held the following May, obtaining 20.1% of the consensus and preceding the social democrats of the former premier Fico (15.7% against 24% in 2014) and the extreme right of the SNS (12% against 2% in 2014), while the general consultations held in March 2020 recorded the clear affirmation of the conservative anti-corruption party OľaNO (Common people and independent personalities), which won with 25.2% of the consensus on the Social Democrats of Smer (18.9%) and whose leader I. Matovič in the same month assumed the position of premier at the helm of a coalition government. In March 2021 Matovič resigned following the political crisis generated by a non-shared management of vaccination strategies, being replaced by Finance Minister E. Heger. Slovak Prime Minister Igor Matovic and his government have resigned to alleviate a political crisis triggered by a secret deal to purchase the Russian coronavirus vaccine Sputnik V.

It is the first European government to collapse due to the handling of the pandemic, but the move will keep the current four-party coalition in power and avoid the possibility of early elections. The coalition in fact holds a comfortable parliamentary majority.

President Zuzana Caputova accepted the prime minister’s resignation and asked Eduard Heger of Matovic’s OĽaNO (Ordinary People Party) to form a new government. Matovic took office on March 21, 2020, as the pandemic hit Europe.

From 1 July to 31 December 2016, Slovakia assumed the presidency of the Council of the European Union.

Slovakia History