South | Osseti | en, Georgian Samchret Osseti, Autonomous Region of South Ossetia, former autonomous region in northern Georgia (the autonomy status was formally revoked by Georgia in 1990, since then officially by the Georgian side “Tskhinvali region”), at the same time internationally not recognized secession state with its own legislature and Executive (own name Respublikæ Chussar Iryston), on the border with Russia (Republic of North Ossetia), 3,900 km 2, (2000, estimate) 70,000 residents; The capital is Tskhinvali. South Ossetia is predominantly mountainous country (around 90% of the territory is over 1,000 m above sea level) on the southern flank of the Greater Caucasus; the highest mountain is the Chalaza (on the border with Russia) at 3,938 m above sea level. In the south, South Ossetia is part of the Transcaucasian depression and basin zone; about half of the country is forested (mainly oak and beech). The majority of the population is formed by Ossetians (66% according to the 1989 census), there are also minorities of Georgians and Russians. The Georgians live from a. in some villages on the southern border of the area. Many of the residents of South Ossetia have become Russian citizens. Russian is the official language. Agriculture is predominant (sheep breeding in the high mountains, cattle farming, fruit and viticulture as well as the cultivation of wheat, maize, Sugar beets and vegetables in the south). Industry (processing of wood and agricultural products) is only significantly represented in and around Tskhinvali; the arts and crafts are well developed. In the west (near Kwaissi) lead-zinc ores are mined. The economy suffered lasting damage during the military conflict with Georgia in 1992/93; South Ossetia is politically and economically dependent on Russia.
History: As part of his policy of expansion in the Caucasus, which began in the second half of the 18th century subordinated to Russia, the construction of the Georg. Heerstaße began to formally rule the Ossetians and Kabardines, which controlled the only traffic route to the south. Russia succeeded in subjugating the southern Terek region in 1817/25, and pacifying it only in the middle of the 19th century, although the Christian Ossetians who settled in the south, in contrast to the predominantly Muslim North Ossetians, behaved relatively calmly during the Caucasus Wars. In 1860 the military was replaced by a civil administration; an administrative reform assigned the settlement area of the Ossetians to the Terek area. 1918-21 the Ossetians rebelled against the annexation in the Republic of Georgia (ruled by the Mensheviks); they demanded national rights and the recognition of their Soviet republic, which had been declared under Soviet influence in South Ossetia. Georgian government troops suppressed the uprising in June 1920 during a bloody punitive expedition and drove numerous Ossetians from their villages. In the course of the Sovietization of Georgia, South Ossetia was incorporated as an autonomous region on April 20, 1922 (thus part of the “Transcaucasian Federal Socialist Soviet Republic” which existed until 1936); the bigger one 1922 South Ossetia incorporated as an autonomous region (thus part of the “Transcaucasian Federal Soviet Socialist Republic” which existed until 1936); the bigger one 1922 South Ossetia incorporated as an autonomous region (thus part of the “Transcaucasian Federal Soviet Socialist Republic” which existed until 1936); the bigger one North Ossetia fell to the RSFSR.
On November 10, 1989, the Tskhinvali Territorial Soviet applied for the recognition of South Ossetia as an autonomous republic, which triggered a star march of 20,000 Georgian nationalists to South Ossetia and the first violent confrontation with South Ossetia. After the area had unilaterally decided on September 20, 1990 to found a “South Ossetian Democratic Republic” and at the same time the connection to North Ossetia was demanded, the Georgian leadership under S. Gamsachurdialiftedon December 11, 1990, the autonomy of South Ossetia and imposed a state of emergency on the districts of Tskhinvali and Jawa, which are mostly inhabited by Ossetians. With the invasion of Georgian forces at the turn of 1990/91, an armed conflict began, in the course of which around 1,000 people were killed and 67,000 residents (30,000 Georgians, 37,000 Ossetians) fled. On January 19, 1992, a referendum carried out despite a state of emergency and under siege confirmed South Ossetia’s decision to secede Georgia or join the Russian Federation by an absolute majority. Russian troops vacated their positions in April 1992; After the conclusion of a Russian-Georgian-Ossetian armistice agreement (June 24, 1992), a peacekeeping force composed of members of the three nations was stationed.
According to shopareview, a renewed confrontation occurred when the Georgian government declared that it wanted to reintegrate South Ossetia into Adjara and fight smuggling. A Georgian police checkpoint erected ten kilometers from Tskhinvali at the end of May 2004 led to protests by the South Ossetian government, which in return refused Georgian government members entry to Tskhinvali and armed the Ossetian population; there was an exchange of fire between Ossetian militias and Georgian soldiers. On July 15, 2004, Russia, Georgia, South and North Ossetia signed a protocol on the demilitarization of South Ossetia in Moscow; Georgia undertook to withdraw all units except 500 peacekeepers; South Ossetia was asked to expel Abkhaz and Russian irregulars. Nevertheless, there was renewed fighting in August 2004. In January 2005, the Georgian President introduced M. Saakashvili before the Council of Europe in Strasbourg presented an initiative to resolve the conflict (granting South Ossetia greater autonomy with the right to its own government and parliament); the rejection of the plan by the South Ossetian leadership and other armed incidents kept tensions between Georgia and South Ossetia. In a referendum in November 2006, in which no Georgians took part, voters voted for the independence of South Ossetia. In an alternative referendum in the Georgian-controlled part of South Ossetia, however, the residents voted for reunification with Georgia.
In July 2008, military clashes broke out again between Georgian soldiers and Ossetian militias in the Tskhinvali area. The conflict came to a head when Georgia launched a military offensive against South Ossetia on August 8, 2008 in order to retake the area. Russia intervened militarily; Russian troops also temporarily advanced to central Georgian territory. Finally, on August 12, 2008, Georgia and Russia agreed to an EU peace plan. As a result of the conflict, Russia recognized the state independence of South Ossetia (and Abkhazia). Anatoly Bibilow (* 1970) from the United Ossetia party, which also won the last parliamentary election in 2014, has been President of South Ossetia since April 2017.
Svaneti Mountain Villages (World Heritage)
The historical province of Svaneti is located in the Greater Caucasus. The swans live in secluded valleys in the middle of a landscape characterized by high peaks, glaciers and narrow gorges. They have been able to preserve their own culture. Characteristic buildings in the traditional clan villages are tower houses that were used for residential and defense purposes.
Mountain villages of Svaneti: facts
|Official title:||Mountain villages of Svaneti|
|Cultural monument:||In Upper Svaneti, a historical province of Georgia with an area of 3,154 km², 40 medieval mountain villages in the Great Caucasus, characterized by glaciers and narrow gorges, as well as Ushguli and Chazhashi with more than 200 so-called tower houses, which have 3 to 5 storeys rejuvenate and were used for residential and defensive purposes|
|Location:||Chazhashi and Ushguli, northwest of Tbilisi (Tbilisi)|
|Meaning:||Example of the centuries-old culture of the swans|