The GDR under Honecker 2

The GDR under Honecker (1971-1989) Part II

As Honecker The social program at the beginning of the 1980s was throttled in view of the continuing economic weakness, repression (“decomposition” and “extensive” surveillance) and the ubiquity of the oppressive apparatus came to the fore again. The SED’s monopoly of power in state and society, however, could no longer compensate for the party’s lack of legitimacy. […]

Germany History - Denominational Age 1

Germany History: Denominational Age (1517-1648) Part I

The most enduring result of Maximilian I’s dynastic policy was the unification of the empires of Aragon, Castile and Naples-Sicily with the Habsburg and Burgundian lands under the rule of his eldest grandson Charles in 1516. As Emperor Charles V (1519–56), Germany was just a side country to his Burgundian-Spanish empire. In his politics the struggle for Italy against France was […]

The GDR under Honecker 1

The GDR under Honecker (1971-1989) Part I

On May 3, 1971 (official announcement) E. Honecker was elected First Secretary (since 1976 General Secretary) of the Central Committee of the SED and chairman of the National Defense Council after an intrigue of the Politburo, which he was instrumental in driving, as Ulbricht’s successor. After Ulbricht’s death (August 1st, 1973) Stoph took over the office of State Council Chairman, Horst Sindermann (* 1915, […]

From the Peace of Westphalia to the Congress of Vienna 3

Germany History: From the Peace of Westphalia to the Congress of Vienna (1648–1815) Part III

French revolutionary wars, dissolution of the empire The social and political foundations of the European states, however, suffered a decisive shock from the French Revolution of 1789. Their appeal to “freedom, equality and brotherhood” threatened the absolutist as well as the estate order in Germany, especially since the intervention of Austria and Prussia against France […]

From the Peace of Westphalia to the Congress of Vienna 2

Germany History: From the Peace of Westphalia to the Congress of Vienna (1648–1815) Part II

After the “Great Elector” Friedrich Wilhelm (1640–88) had laid the foundations for the state expansion of his territories, Elector Friedrich III. of Brandenburg (since 1688) on January 18, 1701 in Königsberg, Prussia, which did not belong to the empire, became a kingdom (until 1713 king as Friedrich I), while the Wittelsbach elector Maximilian II. Emanuel von Bayern (1679–1726) received such an increase […]

From the Peace of Westphalia to the Congress of Vienna 1

Germany History: From the Peace of Westphalia to the Congress of Vienna (1648–1815) Part I

Creation of absolutist princely states The Reichstag, which met in Regensburg in 1663, developed into a permanent conference of ambassadors (“everlasting Reichstag”) of the imperial estates, v. a. of the sovereigns, in whose territories the focus of political life shifted. Here emerged – favored by the resolutions of the “Youngest Reichs Farewell” of the Regensburg […]

German Confederation, North German Confederation and Forging an Empire 1

German Confederation, North German Confederation and Forging an Empire (1815–1971) Part I

Legitimacy of the monarchies as a guiding ideology The German Confederation founded by the German Federal Act (June 8th, 1815) was an amalgamation of sovereign princes and free cities. Substantial parts of Prussia (Posen, East and West Prussia) and Austria (especially the Hungarian half of the empire and Italian parts of the empire) were outside […]

The German Empire (1871-1918) 2

The German Empire (1871-1918) Part II

Break with the Bismarck alliance system That of Wilhelm II and Chancellor L. von Caprivi (1890–94) embarked on the »New Course« aimed at disentangling the complicated Bismarck system of alliances and at achieving an alliance with Great Britain; at the same time, despite Russian offers, the renewal of the reinsurance contract (1890) was waived. Russia then turned to France […]

The German Empire (1871-1918) 1

The German Empire (1871-1918) Part I

The imperial constitution The imperial constitution (April 16, 1871) was more federally oriented than that of the North German Confederation. The German Reich was a constitutional monarchy, an “eternal league of princes”. The Reich Chancellor (previously Federal Chancellor) was appointed by the Federal Presidium, the Kaiser, and not elected by the Reichstag. Until 1918 he […]

United Germany 6

United Germany Part VI

In the period that followed, the SPD leadership moved away from the decision it had taken immediately after the election to join the opposition. Negotiations with the CDU and CSU led to an agreement on February 7, 2018, which was signed on March 12, 2018 after a positive vote by the SPD members. Schulz refused […]

Germany Economy

Germany Economy

Industry According to allcountrylist, the manufacturing industry has continued to lose importance compared to the service sector, both in terms of gross value added and employment. The share of gross value added fell from 52% (1985) to less than 30% (as of 2019: industry: 21.6%; other manufacturing industries 8.2%). The manufacturing and construction industries had […]

United Germany 5

United Germany Part V

In the European elections on May 25, 2014, the SPD was the only party represented in the Bundestag, alongside the right-wing populist AfD, to gain significant votes. With the following state elections, however, the party began to decline. In Hamburg, Bremen, Berlin, Brandenburg, Lower Saxony and Rhineland-Palatinate, the SPD was able to maintain its position […]

United Germany 4

United Germany Part IV

The black-yellow coalition was initially unable to benefit from the unexpectedly strong economic upturn after the financial crisis was overcome, due to discussions about financial and energy policy. In 2010, in the face of strong opposition, the government decided to extend the life of the nuclear power plants by an average of twelve years. After […]