Tajikistan Geography and Population

Tajikistan – geography

Tajikistan is a mountain country located between three major mountain systems in Central Asia. To the north are the Tian Shan mountain ranges of Kurama and Mogultau. Between them and the centrally located, very high Gissar-Alaj mountains lies the western part of the Fergana Valley with the river Syr Darja. Between two of the Gissar-Alaj mountain ranges, Turkestan and Zeravshan, runs the upper reaches of the Zeravshan River. The southwestern part of the country has a number of mountain ranges (Tereklitau, Karatau, Aktau) that run NE-SW. Between them are fertile valleys with water-rich rivers, Amu Darja tributaries Vakhsj and Gissar. The sparsely populated autonomous republic of Gorno-Badakhshan in the SE is completely dominated by the Pamir Mountains with mountain peaks of over 7000 m.

Tajikistan has a distinctly mainland climate, often sunny and with little rainfall. The varied landscape and the large height differences give large temperature differences; in July they vary averages. temperatures from 30 °C in the valleys to 0 °C in the Pamir. Most rivers get water from the snow of the high mountains and from the many glaciers of the Pamirs. A few smaller rivers in the Pamir run to the drainless lake Karakul.

The country is poor in forests. In the mountain areas, some forest and shrubbery can be seen (including juniper), but otherwise the vegetation is predominantly grass steppes and deserts. In the irrigated areas, poplar trees have been planted along almost all irrigation canals. Large parts of the landscape are untouched nature and contain a rich and varied wildlife. In the lowlands there are various deer, jackals, leopards and wild boars. There are also many species of snakes. In the mountains there are snow leopard, wolf, lynx and badger, and in the air several vulture species.


Despite many deaths and large-scale emigration during the civil war in the 1990’s, large-scale population growth has continued. Birth rates throughout the 1990’s were declining, but remained high (above 30 ‰) and natural population growth was above 2.5% annually. In 2000, the birth rate was declining by 27 ‰, and the same was true for population growth of 2.2%. It is noteworthy that almost half of the population is under 14 years of age. 80% of the residents are Tajiks and 15% Uzbeks; in addition, small minorities of Russians and Kyrgyz (1% each). The majority of Russians, who in 1989 accounted for over 8%, emigrated in the early 1990’s, and in 2000 only 68,000 remained.

  • Countryaah: Do you know how many people there are in Tajikistan? Check this site to see population pyramid and resident density about this country.


Despite extensive investment in industry, agriculture at independence was Tajikistan’s main occupation. Almost half of the workforce was employed here and contributed approximately 40% of GDP. Cotton is the most important crop and is grown especially in the irrigated valleys in the southwestern part of the country. The Civil War also caused a great deal of damage to agriculture, and cotton production was estimated to have fallen in 1996 to a quarter of the harvest in 1991. In 2000-04, production increased by 66%, but in 2005 there was a significant decline and only 447,000 tonnes were produced. planned 600,000 t. Cereals, fruits, vegetables and tobacco are also grown, and there is an extensive cattle ranch. Falling employment in industry and the shift from highly mechanized cotton production to more traditional crops increased the employment rate of agriculture in the 1990’s. At the same time, the share of agriculture in the sharply reduced national product fell to 22% (1995). In 2005, 66% of the labor force was employed in agriculture, whose share of GDP was 25%. In the more desolate areas beyond the control of the government, the opium poppy is an important crop, and where Tajikistan was previously only a supplier of raw opium, the country became a producer ofheroin smuggled into Russian and other European markets. Of course, there are no figures for the economic significance of the drug trade, but it is believed to have been the economic foundation of the rebel forces, and it remains of great importance. Also as a transit country for Afghanistan’s drug exports, the country is important; The UN thus estimates that about 100 tonnes of heroin pass through Tajikistan each year. For culture and traditions of Tajikistan, please check animalerts.