|STATE STRUCTURE||Presidential republic|
|INTERNAL DIVISION||The administrative-territorial units of the Republic of Tajikistan are: Gorno-Badakhshan Autonomous Region (taj. Viloyati Mukhtori Kuhistoni Badakhshon); region (taj. viloyat); city (taj. shahr); district (taj. nokhia).|
|NATIONAL COMPOSITION||Tajiks (84.26%), Uzbeks (13.94%), Kyrgyz (0.80%), Russians (0.46%)|
|RELIGION||Secular state, the main religion in the country is Islam. But there are also Christian, Jewish and Zoroastrian communities.|
|TIMEZONE||UTC +5 / MSK +2|
The flag of Tajikistan in its red-white-green colors repeats the Flag of the Tajik SSR. In accordance with the Regulations on the State Flag of the Republic of Tajikistan, adopted on November 24, 1992, “The State Flag of the Republic of Tajikistan is a symbol of… the indestructible union of workers, peasants and intelligentsia…”. Workers symbolize red, peasants – green, intelligentsia – white.
The State Emblem of the Republic of Tajikistan is an image of a stylized crown and a semicircle of seven stars on it in the rays of the sun rising from behind mountains covered with snow and framed by a wreath made up of ears of wheat on the right, cotton branches with open boxes on the left. From above, the wreath is intertwined with a three-strip ribbon, in the lower sector there is a book on a stand.
Paradise for geologists and climbers
The ancestors of the inhabitants of this state called their country Aryānam Vaeja, which means “Country of the Aryans” in ancient Iranian.
Landlocked, Tajikistan is located in Central Asia and borders Uzbekistan, Kyrgyzstan, China and Afghanistan. This amazing country is surrounded by the mountain ranges of Pamir, Tien Shan and Gissar-Alay. The peaks of the mountains are covered by more than a thousand glaciers, of which the largest is the Pamir Fedchenko glacier, the third among all Eurasian ones, its area is about 700 km². More than it are only the Siachen and Baltoro glaciers in the Karakorum mountain system.
An interesting fact: The largest Tajik glacier was named after Alexei Pavlovich Fedchenko, a Russian traveler, biologist, geographer, explorer of Central Asia, who discovered the Zaalai Range and Kaufman Peak (since 1928 – Lenin Peak, and since 2006 – Peak named after Abu Ali ibn Sino ). In 1873 Fedchenko died in the Alps.
According to Franciscogardening.com, Tajikistan is rich in minerals, including gold, silver, precious stones, uranium and coal. But the extraction of most of them is hampered by a poorly developed transport infrastructure.
The country is located in the zones of subtropical and continental climate. In the Pamir mountains, the temperature can drop to -63ºС, while in the valleys and plains it rises to +48ºС.
Reserves have been created on the territory of the country, including Tigrovaya Balka, Ramit, Dashtijum and Sarikhosor. Goitered gazelles, Bukhara deer, tigers, pheasants and reed cats are found in local forests. In the foothills of the Pamirs, snow leopards listed in the Red Book of the Earth have been preserved.
The first kingdoms that appeared on this beautiful land were Bactria and Sogdiana. Bactria arose in the Bronze Age (XXIII-XVIII centuries BC) in the territories of modern eastern Turkmenistan, southern Uzbekistan, northern Afghanistan and western Tajikistan. On these lands, archaeologists still find unique artifacts.
Interesting fact: The Bactrians spoke the ancient Iranian language. Simultaneously with Bactria, there was the Indus civilization in Pakistan and the ancient Babylonian kingdom in Mesopotamia.
The kingdom of Sogdiana in the 8th century BC was located on the territory of modern Tajikistan and Uzbekistan. For the first time the name of Sogd is found in the sacred book of the Zoroastrians “Avesta”. According to linguists, Sogd is “sacred”, “burning”, “pure”.
In October 1929, the Tajik Soviet Socialist Republic was formed, which became part of the USSR on December 5 of the same year. Dushanbe became the capital of the union republic.
Interesting fact: The name of the village of Dushanbe is found in written sources of 1676. Big bazaars were held here on Mondays, and the very name of the village, and now the big city, means “Monday”. Archaeological excavations have shown that the first urban settlement on the site of Dushanbe arose in the 4th century BC.
In the 1930s, the process of industrialization began in Tajikistan, which did not stop even during the Great Patriotic War.
On September 9, 1991, after the collapse of the USSR, the deputies of the Supreme Council of the Republic adopted a resolution “On the state independence of the Republic of Tajikistan.”
Tajikistan was the only Iranian-speaking republic within the Soviet Union.
The main religion in the country is Islam, but there are also Christian, Jewish and Zoroastrian communities.
Two objects on the territory of Tajikistan are under the protection of UNESCO – this is the ancient settlement of Sarazm (IV-II millennium BC) and the Pamir Mountains National Park. Sixteen more historical and natural objects of the country are on the list of candidates.
The national culture of Tajikistan is rooted in the period when the Persians and Tajiks were a single people, carrying the memory of the ancient Aryans. Therefore, the scientist and poet Rudaki can be considered the property of the country; the physician and philosopher known to Europeans as Avicenna; the author of the epic poem “Shahnameh” Firdousi; philosopher, mathematician, astronomer and poet Omar Khayyam.
According to historical written sources, the first schools on the lands where Tajikistan is now located appeared more than 3000 BC. During the Soviet period, education in the republic was fully supported by the state. Now the country has both public schools and private ones. There are branches of three Russian universities in Dushanbe, including the main one – Moscow State University named after M.V. Lomonosov.
To date, medical care in the republic remains at a low level – both public and private.
Tajik athletes, just as athletes of an independent, independent state, first took part in the Olympic Games in 1996. Currently, 35,000 titled athletes live in the country, who, due to the lack of state funding, do not travel to international competitions or participate in them at their own expense. For example, the national taekwondo federation includes 36 world champions who participate in international tournaments only thanks to sponsorship.
Traditional Tajik cuisine was formed under the influence of Persian and Uzbek. One of the most famous and popular local dishes is oshi palov – plov. Not a single Tajik table is complete without non cakes, shurbo – potato soup with meat, kabob – lamb shish kebab and many other dishes.
A good gift from Tajikistan will be skullcaps, shawls, dresses and harem pants embroidered by local needlewomen, traditional earrings and bracelets, elegant ceramics painted with characteristic patterns. Gorgeous silk Tajik carpets.
First of all, climbers want to visit Tajikistan. But this country can become interesting for history buffs too. Once here, it is worth visiting the ancient city-museum of Penjikent, which was the capital of one of the Sogdian principalities. Excavations have been going on for several decades in the settlement of the 5th-8th centuries AD, as a result of which, in particular, magnificent wall paintings by Sogdian masters have been discovered. Fans of antiquity will also be interested in Khujand, which, according to many historians, is Alexandria Extreme, erected in the 4th century BC by Alexander the Great.
An interesting fact: Childukhtaron – the Valley of Forty Girls in Tajikistan – is covered with mysticism. Local legend says that in ancient times, when the nearby village was captured by enemies, local girls ran into the valley and began to pray to Allah to turn them into stones – just not to get to the enemies. Allah fulfilled their request. Every spring, locals, like many generations of their ancestors, come here and decorate forty stone blocks with ribbons and flowers.
The capital of the country – Dushanbe – is famous for its architectural, historical and cultural monuments. In addition to museums and theaters, you can go to the ruins of a medieval fortress – the summer residence of the Hissar beks, as well as to the mausoleum of one of the most famous Persian mystics – Sheikh Yakub al-Charkhi. There are also monuments to the great scientist Avicenna and Emir Ismail Samani, the founder of the first national state (849-907).
Interesting fact: In honor of Ismail Samani, the highest peak of the country, located in the Pamir mountain range, is named. The height of the peak is 7495 meters. Until 1998, this peak was the highest point in the USSR and was called Communism Peak.
All traditional Muslim holidays are celebrated in Tajikistan, but there are also secular ones. Among them are the New Year – January 1, the Day of the Armed Forces of the Republic of Tajikistan – February 23, Mother’s Day – March 8, Victory Day of the peoples in the Great Patriotic War – May 9, Independence Day of the Republic of Tajikistan – September 9 and many others.