According to localcollegeexplorer, Tanzania was born on April 27, 1964 from the union of Tanganyika with the islands of Pemba and Zanzibar. The birth of the new state was preceded by a bloody revolution, which broke out in Zanzibar in January 1964 and led by the leader of the Afro-Shirazi party (ASP) AA Karume. With JK Nyerere as president and Karume as vice president, the Republic unit of Tanzania was initially governed by the Constitution of Tanganyika, supplemented by rules that ensured an almost absolute administrative and legislative autonomy in Zanzibar; the Tanganyka African National Union (TANU) and the ASP were recognized as the only legal parties. Tanzania gave herself a socialist orientation, siding on the international level on the side of the national liberation movements in the Portuguese colonies and of the anti-racist movements in Rhodesia, and establishing ever closer relations with the USSR and People’s China. Nyerere’s utopian and humanistic socialism sought to reconnect with the communal traditions of African village culture and used terms such as ujamaa(“brotherhood”) and self-reliance.(“Self-confidence”). However, the results achieved were modest, while in 1977 the economic instances created ten years earlier with Kenya and Uganda (East African Community) definitively failed. To bring the country on the brink of economic failure also contributed to the conflict that pitted Tanzania against Uganda in 1978-79, which culminated in the overthrow of the Ugandan dictator I. Amin. Meanwhile, in 1977 a definitive Constitution had been adopted, which continued to guarantee Zanzibar its own president, government and parliament. Also in 1977, TANU and ASP merged to form the Chama Cha Mapinduzi (CCM), or Revolutionary Party of Tanzania.
● Having acknowledged the failure to achieve socialism and economic self-sufficiency, Nyerere (confirmed to the presidency in 1965, 1970, 1975 and 1980) had to appeal to Western countries for financial aid. In 1985, AH Mwinyi was elected president of the Republic. In 1990 Nyerere also renounced the presidency of the CCM in favor of Mwinyi, who was re-elected in the same year as head of state. The liberalization process was completed in 1992 with the introduction of multi-partyism. While conflicts emerged between the central administration and that of Zanzibar and disagreements arose between the population of African origin and the minority of Asian origin, as well as religious rivalries between Christians and Muslims, the first multi-party general elections were held in the autumn of 1995. The candidate of the CCM, B. Mkapa, was elected president of the Republic and in 1996 he also became party leader. His appointment favored a turnover of traditional political personnel and this allowed the start of a decisive battle against corruption. In economic policy, the government substantially confirmed the liberal approach of the executive past and obtained the reopening of credits by the International Monetary Fund. A factor of growing social tension was represented by the dramatic dimensions reached by the refugee problem from Rwanda and Burundi. Mkapa confirmed a policy of containing new arrivals and limiting attendance in time.
● In 1999, with the death of Nyerere, the discussion on the institutional form of the state and the autonomy of Zanzibar began in dramatic forms. The outcome of the 2000 elections, which saw the re-election of Mkapa, was harshly contested by the Civic United Front (CUF), the most deeply rooted of the autonomist parties, which accused the government of strong pressure on voters and fraud. The tension took on increasingly violent forms in the first months of 2001: demonstrations, clashes and attacks followed one another. However, the situation returned under control when CCM and CUF agreed to form joint committees for pacification. Eventually the CUF agreed to participate as a minority in parliamentary life. In 2003 Tanzania signed an agreement with Uganda and Kenya for the establishment of a customs union of the East African Community. In 2005, 2010 and 2016 the CCM established itself again in the elections in Zanzibar and in the presidential elections, won by J. Kikwete, who committed himself to a development policy in the name of continuity and was reconfirmed in 2010. In November 2015 he was elected president from the country J. Magufuli, also from the CCM, reconfirmed following the consultations held in October 2020; who died in March 2021, was replaced interim in March 2021 by Vice President SH Suhulu.