Togo West African state, overlooking the Gulf of Guinea. Territory of limited size, inhabited by a majority Ewe to the S and ethnically more composite to the North (kabye, chokosi, bassare, konkomba, tamberma, fulani, hausa, etc.), the Togo is historically located between the powerful Akan states in the West – in particular the Asante – and the Dahomey to E. Invested several times in the 18th and 19th centuries. from the expansionism of the Asante in its western areas, the region was the scene in the late nineteenth century of German penetration, initiated by the explorer Gustav Nachtigal who, in the wake of a previous missionary and mercantile presence, concluded treaties with the local leaders on the coast (1884). The interior was occupied between 1887 and 1889, the year in which the borders of the small colony of Togo with France to the East and with Great Britain to the West were established. In 1914, the First World War broke out in Europe, the Allies penetrated the Togo from different sides leading to a rapid surrender of the German forces. The territory was submitted to the mandate of the Inter-Allied Supreme Council (1919) and in 1920 the colony was entrusted by the League of Nations in the form of a mandate to France and England, dividing the Ewe population into two sections, which constantly pursued reunification. The British Togo, with its capital Ho, was administratively annexed to the Gold Coast (od. Ghana), while the French Togo, ceased following the referendum of 1956 the fiduciary regime, became a republic within the Franco-African Community. In the French mandate, the nationalist movement (ewe) was represented by the Comité de l’unité togolaise (CUT) of S. Olympio and the Parti de l’unité togolaise (PUT) of N. Grunitzky, prime minister of the autonomous government (1956). Olympio succeeded him in 1958, becoming president of the Togo in 1961 (independent since 27 April 1960). In 1963 Olympio was assassinated in a coup led by G. Eyadéma who, after having established a government led by Grunitzky, with a new military coup (1967) assumed the presidency and introduced in 1969 the single party (Rassemblement du peuple togolais, RPT). The opposition, in exile, repeatedly tried to overthrow the regime by accentuating the tension in the relations of the Togo with Ghana and Burkina Faso, accused of supporting the subversion. According to localcollegeexplorer, re-elected to the presidency as the sole candidate (1986), Eyadéma significantly reduced state intervention in the economy, as agreed with the International Monetary Fund. After serious riots that arose following popular protests, in 1992 Eyadéma introduced multi-partyism. A National Conference was then assembled, composed of state representatives, political parties, religious and professional groups, which proclaimed its sovereignty and deprived the president of many of his prerogatives, appointing a transitional government headed by K. Koffigoh. Preceded by a failed attempt at coup, vitiated by fraud and characterized by a very low popular participation, the presidential elections took place in 1993, won again by Eyadéma, who also excelled in the controversial consultations of 1998 and 2003. Upon his death (2005) the army imposed of the State the son, F. Gnassingbé, legitimized in contested elections in 2005 and 2010.
TOGO . – The Togo sector already under British trust and administratively included in the Gold Coast, with the establishment of this colony in the independent state of Ghana it definitively entered (6 March 1957) to be part of this, of which it is now one of the 4 territories (33,775 km 2 ; 436,000 residents in 1956; capitol Ho, 5,818 residents): v. therefore ghana, in this App. The territory of the French Togo, which ceased following the referendum of October 1956, the fiduciary regime, was transformed into a republic (République du Togo) within the French Community. Subsequently (April 27, 1960) he acquired full independence and was admitted to the UN on the following September 20. The new republic (56,600 km 2 with 1,162,000 residents in 1960; density 20 residents per km 2 mostly Sudanese blacks; 1300 Europeans, mostly French) has a parliament of 46 members elected by universal suffrage for a term of 5 years.
The territory of the republic of Togo goes inland for 600 km up to the Sudan region. The most important center of the country rises along the coast: it is the capital Lomé (67,000 residents), Towards which the railway network and various roads converge, and which is equipped with an intercontinental airport. Being the city close to the border with Ghana, the port of Lomé feeds an intense current of traffic with Keta and Accra. Another port of moderate importance is Anécho. In the southern part, the most conspicuous food products are cassava, which is also exported to Ghana, corn, palm oil, exported to non-African countries, and yams. There is an oil mill in Agou and a factory for the manufacture of tapioca. Coconut palm is also grown here and cotton is south-east of Atakpamé.
The south-eastern slopes of the Monti del Togo are of considerable importance for cocoa and coffee crops alongside that of rice. In the center and north of the country, the basic products of the local diet are provided by millet and legumes, then by yams and rice. Peanuts are also important for export.
Phosphate deposits have been found near Anécho. The exploitation, in the hands of the Société des Mines de Bénin, should allow an annual export of 500,000 tons. There are also deposits of chromite and bauxite. The products that fuel exports to the greatest extent are cocoa (35%), coffee (20%), palm nuts (10%) and copra (10%).