Population. – At the 1990 census the residents were 56,473,035, of which 5,975,449 in Thrace (T. europea) and 50,497,586 in Anatolia (T. asiatica); 1994 data estimates attributed to the country a population of over 61 million residents. The total area reaches 779,452 km 2. The population growth, which in the period 1985-92 was equal to 2.2%, is essentially due to the high birth rate (26,1ı) and to a reduction in the death rate (7,5ı), thanks to the improved sanitation conditions, which raised life expectancy at birth to 65 years. It is a young population, as over 50% are under the age of 20, while only 6% are over 65. The workforce grows by nearly 500,000 annually and the unemployed represent 7.4% of the active population. Hence the need to find work abroad: Turkish emigrants exceed one million units and about 60% are hosted in Germany. Alongside the numerous villages (many of which with less than 1000 residents), there are 21 cities that exceed 200,000 residents, in which there is no lack of ethnic minorities (Armenian, Greek and Sephardi Jewish communities) which continue to constitute a characteristic element of urban life. Istanbul has grown from 2,541,899 residents from 1975 to 6,748,400 in 1990; Ankara, with its 2,553,200 residents, Is in second place. Next in importance are Smyrna (İzmir, 1,762,800 residents), Adana (931,600 residents), Bursa, Gaziantep, Konya, Kayseri, İçel, Diyarbakır. Despite the improvement in recent years, the standard of living is still modest. In 1993 the gross national product Next in importance are Smyrna (İzmir, 1,762,800 residents), Adana (931,600 residents), Bursa, Gaziantep, Konya, Kayseri, İçel, Diyarbakır. Despite the improvement in recent years, the standard of living is still modest. In 1993 the gross national product Next in importance are Smyrna (İzmir, 1,762,800 residents), Adana (931,600 residents), Bursa, Gaziantep, Konya, Kayseri, İçel, Diyarbakır. Despite the improvement in recent years, the standard of living is still modest. In 1993 the gross national product per capita was estimated at 2931 US dollars.
Economic conditions. – Turkey is a country in which a process of economic transformation is underway, thanks to the implementation of five-year plans which aim on the one hand to improve agriculture and on the other hand to extend industrialization also in the most internal areas. Land use has undergone significant variations: permanent meadows and pastures have decreased (from 35.4% in 1975 to 10.9% in 1992 with respect to the territorial surface) to the advantage of a greater extension of arable land, while slightly forests and woods increased (from 23.4% to 25.9%) due to the intense reclamation and reforestation of the steppes. Agriculture is the country’s main economic sector; employs 43.6% of the active population and participates with 16,
Significant contrasts are highlighted between the high Anatolian lands, where cereals prevail (wheat, in particular, whose production went from 167 million q in 1977 to 175 million in 1994), the plains and valleys, which present conditions favorable for the most profitable crops, such as those of the vine (35 million q of grapes and 240,000 hl of wine), of the olive tree (14 million q of olives and 1,680,000 of oil) and citrus fruits (18 million q). Raisins (sultanas, zibibbo) and dried figs have special commercial importance. Tobacco production is progressing (especially in the Smyrna region, Izmit and the Pontic side), with 3.2 million q, while cotton is slightly down (6 million q of fiber, and 9.6 million q million q of seeds). Among industrial crops, sugar beet (127 million q) should be noted. The livestock herd is stationary for sheep (37.5 million heads) and goats (10 million, of which over 6 million provide the highly prized mohair wool), and a slight increase for cattle (12 million), for which crosses with European breeds have been introduced. For Turkey 1996, please check pharmacylib.com.
A significant contribution to the industrialization of the country derives from the systematic search for underground reserves. Minerals of iron, copper, chromium and bauxite are extracted, as well as coal (2.9 million t in 1994, mostly anthracite) and petroleum (3.7 million t) which, coming mainly from the Southeastern Anatolia, it is refined in Batman, Mersin, Izmit and Smyrna. The production of electricity (46% of water origin) in 1993 was 73.727 million kWh.
Industrial activity has been developed and strengthened by the state which, in addition to managing numerous public enterprises, supports tens of thousands of small artisan enterprises with protective regulations. Since 1981, private industry has begun to assert itself, which has led to profound structural changes in the sector. The metallurgical industries experienced strong increases in the cast iron (4.3 million t in 1993) and steel (10.3 million t) sectors; the mechanical ones have achieved moderate levels in the production of motor vehicles (under license from foreign companies, 265,245 cars and 56,385 commercial vehicles in 1992). In the textile field, the first place continues to be occupied by the cotton industry (75% private), which has come to join the traditional processing of carpets. Among other industries,
Commerce and communications. – Foreign trade continues to be highly passive. Turkey exports fruit, textile fibers, tobacco, minerals, etc., while imports are mainly made up of hydrocarbons, followed by machinery, electrical material, chemical and pharmaceutical products. The main buyers are Germany, the Arab countries, the United States, Italy; the major suppliers are the United States and the countries of the European Union, with which Turkey has a commercial agreement since 1963.
The communications system, although it has improved considerably in recent years, is still inadequate with respect to the growing needs of traffic and tourism. The railway network in 1993 reached 10,413 km; that road, in 1992, approximately 60,000 km.
Airlines have been stepped up on both domestic and international traffic (approximately 4.7 million passengers flew in 1992). The merchant navy also had a rapid increase (901 ships with a gross tonnage of over 4 million tonnes in 1992).