Uganda Geography

Uganda Geography and Population

Uganda – Geography

Uganda – geography, Most of the country is made up of a plateau 1000-1500 m high, surrounded by mountains and valleys, but the landscape and vegetation are varied. To the west lies the Rift Valley system with the Virunga and Ruwenzori Mountains, the Great Lakes and Albert Nile. In Ruwenzori lies Uganda’s highest and Africa’s third highest mountain, the snow-capped Mount Stanley (5110 m). To the east lie a series of extinct volcanoes, of which the southernmost, Mount Elgon, is the largest and highest (4,321 m). Lakes make up almost a fifth of the country’s land.

Although Uganda is at the equator, the elevation above sea level means it is relatively cool. The temperature in most of the country is on average. 26 °C during the day and 16 °C at night. The warmest time is from December to February, with daytime temperatures fluctuating between 27 and 29 °C. The many lakes, especially Lake Victoria, locally affect rainfall. This is relatively stable on an annual basis and varies from approximately 760 mm in the northeast of the country to over 1500 mm at Lake Victoria. To the south, there are two rainy seasons: from April to May and from October to November; most rain falls in April. To the north, there is only one rainy season, from April to September-October. The difference in rainfall means that vegetation varies from semi-desert in the northeast over savannahin the central part of the country to lush greenery around the lakes and in the mountains where rainforest dominates.


Almost all the residents are black; the majority live in the countryside and only approximately 10% in cities, the largest being the capital of Kampala and the industrial city of Jinja. approximately two-thirds are Bantu-speaking people who dominate the southern part of the country. The largest group is Baganda, which has a long history in the kingdom of Buganda north and west of Lake Victoria. Unlike Kenya and Tanzania, there has never been any major immigration of whites and consequent seizure of land. Population growth is around 3% annually, and the population has tripled since independence, which has put a heavy pressure on agricultural land, especially in the southwestern part of the country. It has also led to a walk to the cities, especially to Kampala, the only major metropolis in the country. The city suffered tremendously during the war after the fall of Idi Amin in 1979. An extensive reconstruction has once again made the city serve as the country’s traffic, economic and political center. Here also lies Makerere University, founded in 1922 as the first higher education institution in East Africa. There is some uncertainty about the extent of HIV/AIDS in the country; it is estimated that between 5% and 10% of the population is affected. However, Uganda seems to have better experiences than neighboring countries in limiting the number of HIV infected.

  • Countryaah: Do you know how many people there are in Uganda? Check this site to see population pyramid and resident density about this country.


Agriculture employs 80% of the population and accounts for an equal share of exports. The best conditions for agricultural production are found in the southern part of the country, especially around Lake Victoria. Fertile soil and sufficient rainfall allow for more crops per year. The majority of agricultural production is for own consumption and takes place on small farms without substantial use of modern aids. Corn, millet, flour bananas, sweet potatoes, peanuts, cassava are grownand many different vegetables. Animal husbandry is widespread and includes cattle, sheep, goats, pigs and poultry. Cattle farming is most prevalent in the northern part of the country. The main sales and export crops are coffee, cotton and tea. Of this, the coffee accounts for half, making Uganda very dependent on the fluctuating coffee prices. Industrial production is mainly based on the processing of agricultural products such as coffee, tea, tobacco, sugar, cotton and cereals. In addition, the production of beverages, soaps, fertilizers, wood and paper products, cement and building materials. Industry and trade have also been very hard hit by the country’s troubled development. It went completely wrong when Idi Aminin 1972, with just 90 days’ notice, all residents of Asian descent expelled, nationalized their properties, and declared economic war against foreign influence. The economy collapsed completely as the Asian population dominated the country’s business. After Museveni offered the expelled Asians in 1990 that they could return and get their property back, the economy has resumed.

The same goes for tourism. The country’s national parks can offer magnificent scenery and abundant wildlife, although the wars have resulted in a lot of wildlife being eradicated and forest areas destroyed. A special attraction is the mountain gorillas in the Bwindi National Park. For culture and traditions of Uganda, please check allunitconverters.


Uganda’s location means that the country is dependent on access to the sea through Kenya and Tanzania; most important is the route via Nairobi to Mombasa. Roads and railways are run-down. In particular, strong efforts to improve infrastructure have improved the road network.

Uganda Geography