Vietnam – officially the Socialist Republic of Vietnam – is the easternmost country on the Indochinese peninsula, in Southeast Asia. Hanoi is the capital city of Vietnam according to itypemba.
It is bordered by China to the north, Laos to the northwest, and Cambodia to the southwest. Its extensive coastline touches the waters of the South China Sea in most parts and the Gulf of Siam in the south.
Although in the West it is known especially for the events of the Vietnam War, the truth is that it is a culture and a nation with an ancient ancestral history and is currently a country with promising economic potential.
In 2008, Vietnam had a population of 86 116 560 residents; the population density that same year was 261.3 residents / km 2, which places it in the 13th position of the most populated countries in the world and also appears on the list of the so-called Next Eleven economies. According to official figures, its growth has 8.17% in its GDP for 2008, which makes Vietnam the second country in the Far East in rapid economic growth and the first in Southeast Asia.
Since 1990 the birth rate has been declining, currently standing at 16.47 births per 1000 residents. The mortality rate stands at a meager 6.18%, however the infant mortality rate shoots up to 2.36% (in comparison, in Cuba infant mortality has already been reduced to 4%). The net emigration rate is negative, -0.39 emigrants / 1000. The population growth rate is 0.99%. It is estimated that the rate of population growth will be zero before 2020.
Life expectancy is 72 years, 94.3% of the population is literate and the average number of children per woman is 1.89, one of the lowest in Southeast Asia.
The Kinh ethnic group represents 87% of the population and is the main resident of the cities and the plains, leaving the rest of the groups the predominance of the mountainous areas.
50% of those who live in the country are under 25 years of age and the average age of the population is 26.9 years.
- Year 0 = 1 million (in the northern region governed by China).
- Year 1000 = 1.5-3 million, north. About 1 to 1.5 million in the south, in addition to 1 million Cambodian Khmer.
- 1900 = 13.5 million.
- 1939 = 20.3 million.
- 1954 = 30.5 million.
- 1968 = 40.1 million.
- 1975 = 46.6 million.
- 1989 = 64.8 million.
- 1994 = 72.5 million.
- 2000 = 80 million.
Regarding children and young people, Unicef (United Nations Children’s Fund) has stated that since the advent of the socialist government (in 1975), the chances of Vietnamese children to survive and become healthy adults have improved significantly, thanks to enormous progress in vaccination against preventable diseases and better nutrition.
The number of girls and boys going to school has doubled since 1977, resulting in the literacy rate for women increasing from 72% in 1972 to 90% today.
- Khai Dinh’s Tomb
- So Kien Basilica
The official language of the country is Vietnamese (tiếng Việt) and it is written using the Vietnamese alphabet (chữ quốc ngữ), based on the Latin alphabet ; some ethnic groups have their own dialect and even their own writing.
81% of the population is atheist or agnostic. Most religious people profess Buddhism (introduced from India in the 2nd century BC. The Vietnamese also profess Catholicism (introduced at the beginning of the 18th century), Protestantism (since 1911) and Islam. There are also religions indigenous, such as cao dai, joa jao.
Vietnamese new year
Vietnam has an annual holiday that sums up everything that is its cultural identity. This holiday is the Vietnamese New Year, called by them as New Year or Tet. These popular festivals are a mirror of local customs and the prevailing idiosyncrasy.
“Tet” is a word of Chinese origin, and is a phonetic deformation of “Tiet”, which means “set of bamboo stern”, although in a broader sense it means “beginning of a period of the year”.
The Vietnamese Lunar New Year occurs in the last ten days of January or the first twenty days of February, between the winter solstice and the spring equinox. Chinese, French, English (which is expanding), and numerous languages of the hill tribes are also common.
Vietnamese food is characterized by the use of fish sauces and the use of vegetables. “Chả giò” (spring roll), “Gỏi cuốn” (summer roll) and “Phở” (rice noodle soup) are among the most common dishes.
- Quan Họ
- Ca trù
- Hò Huế
- Musical instruments:
- Đàn bầu (monochord).
- Đàn đá (lithophone).
- Cải lương
- Múa rối nước (water puppets).
The city has countless cultural centers and schools of all kinds linked to the development of the arts and culture in general, among which the Ho Chi Minh mausoleum, the Museum of National History, the Museum of the Revolution, the National Museum of Fine Arts, as well as several historical buildings.
Currently the city has the National University of Vietnam, founded in 1956, but from the beginning of Hanoi being established as the capital of Indochina the city had the first western-style university in the entire area, then the university teaching It was enriched with the creation in 1902 of a center for higher studies in the branch of medicine, the Hanoi Medical College, which was followed in 1904 by the University of Indochina and in 1925 by the École Supérieure des Beaux-Arts de L’Indochine..
With the arrival of the socialist revolution in 1954, and the unconditional support of the former Soviet Union, new universities were created in the city, including the Hanoi University of Technology, which remains the largest technical university in Vietnam.
Most of the universities in Hanoi are public, although some private universities have been emerging in recent years.
The city is considered a scientific center that hosts more than 62% of the country’s scientists. Phở (noodle soup)
This universally known food is best enjoyed in the city of Hanoi, where it was “invented” in the early 20th century. Phở, or rice noodle soup, is ubiquitous in Hanoi. They appear in any part of the streets of the city of Hanoi, from the many itinerant vendors to the chain of high-end Restaurants Phi twenty-four. Some cook it with chicken and others with beef, and the plurality is found in the type of meat that cooks the soup. Ask the locals where you can delight yourself with a good plate of Phở, each of them will know how to tell you their favorite place.
In Hanoi you eat in the street, small food stalls at very cheap prices. There is a lot of variety of dishes and ingredients. Here
Cha ca La Vong
Cha Ca La Vong is ranked as one of the hundred best things to try before you pass away by many cooking specialists. It is a delicious grill of fish served with bread, peanuts, green onions, pickles, and shrimp paste. The fish is chosen and carefully washed, removing the bones and bad smells. A glass of bia hoi or trada will clearly give your food more flavor.
Probably walking through the streets of the city of Hanoi you will find this dish everywhere, especially in itinerant food vendors. There are still 2 restaurants fully dedicated to this dish in the old city district of Hanoi. Xôi xéo is sticky rice covered with beans and fried onion. Sometimes it can be served with eggs or steamed chicken. The portion is very full and is good for any time of the day, but most Vietnamese eat it for breakfast or lunch.
If the French have the well-known crepe made of wheat, eggs and dairy products; the Vietnamese, and particularly in the city of Hanoi, boast of their steam crepe made from rice flour and water. A tasty meal, the interior stuffed with pork, mushrooms and spices. Bánh cuốn is served with nuoc mam, a mixture of fish sauce, sugar and lemon.
Bun Cha (grilled pork)
Bun cha is the star dish of Hanoi. At lunchtime you find the whole world in Hanoi sitting on small stools and savoring this exquisite and so common dish. A combination of grilled pork, a sweet-brackish soup, green papaya slices, rice noodles, and fresh herbs. Every district in Hanoi city has a Bun Cha site – you just have to follow your nose.
Banh My (the bread of the city of Hanoi)
The baguette is one of the enduring symbols of French colonialism. A Southeast Asian twist has been given for the filling with pate, mayonnaise, pickled carrots and daikon, jalapenos and globs of cold cuts. But the mis bánh is essentially a blank slate for those who cook as long as they can add whatever they want. In the city of Hanoi we find only 2 basic types; Banh My Pate (where you choose the meat), and Banh My Trung (with egg).
Fried spring rolls
Fried spring rolls from the city of Hanoi are very popular and appear on the menu of almost every restaurant. Hanoians are very proud of their spring rolls. There are a good number of different recipes for fried spring rolls, but the most popular ones are those that include pork instead of fish or something else.